Wednesday, 6 November 2013

Speakout Advanced p 37. Word Formation. Extra Links and Examples

Examples

un-: acceptable – unacceptable, bearable – unbearable, comfortable – uncomfortable, equal – unequal, expected – unexpected, happy – unhappy, important – unimportant, known – unknown, limited – unlimited, official – unofficial, pleasant – unpleasant, punctual - unpunctual, reliable – unreliable, wise – unwise; to dress – to undress, to do – to undo, to load – to unload, to lock – to unlock, to pack – to unpack, to tie – to untie.

in- (-il, -ir, -im): ability – inability, adequate – inadequate, attentive - inattentive, capable – incapable, comparable – incomparable, complete – incomplete, direct – indirect, different – indifferent, divisible – indivisible, efficient – inefficient, experienced – inexperienced, tolerable – intolerable; legal – illegal, literate – illiterate, logical – illogical, regular – irregular, resolute – irresolute, resistible – irresistible, responsible – irresponsible, mobile – immobile, modest – immodest, patient – impatient, possible – impossible, probable – improbable, significant – insignificant.

dis-: to approve – to disapprove, to like – to dislike, to obey – to disobey, honest – dishonest, to satisfy – to dissatisfy;  to appear – to disappear, to arm – to disarm, to connect – to disconnect.

non-: conductor – non-conductor, essential – non-essential, ferrous – non-ferrous.


re-: to appear – to reappear, to consider – to reconsider, to construct – to reconstruct, to elect – to reelect, to export – to re-export, to open – to reopen, to read – to re-read, to sell – to resell, to write – to rewrite.

mis-:  to hear – to mishear, to inform – to misinform, to interpret – to misinterpret, to lead – to mislead, to quote – to misquote, to understand – to misunderstand.

over-:  to charge – to overcharge, to estimate – to overestimate, to load – to overload, to pay – to overpay, to value – to overvalue, production – overproduction.

under-:  to charge – to undercharge, to do – to underdo, to value – to undervalue, to pay – to underpay, production – underproduction.

pre-:  historic – prehistoric, war – pre-war.

post-: war – post-war.

anti-: aircraft – anti-aircraft, cyclone – anticyclone, fascist – antifascist.

counter-: to act – to counteract, action - counteraction, attack – counter-attack, claim – counterclaim, offer – counteroffer.

co-:  author – co-author, education – co-education, existence – coexistence, operation – cooperation.

inter-:  national – international, action - interaction, dependent – interdependent, session – intersession, town – inter-town.

ex-:  ex-champion, ex-minister, ex-president.

sub-:  committee – subcommittee, conscious – subconscious, division – subdivision, marine – submarine.

ultra-:  ultra-microscopic, ultra-short, ultra-violet.

en-:  able – to enable, circle – to encircle, danger – to endanger, large – to enlarge, to rich – to enrich, slave – to enslave.

-er, -or:  to buy – buyer, to direct – director, to create – creator, to inspect – inspector, to invent – inventor, to perform – performer, to produce – producer, to sell – seller, to supply – supplier, to teach – teacher, to translate – translator, to visit – visitor, to work – worker, to write – writer.

-ism, -ist: materialism, idealism, materialist, idealist.

-ee:  to address – addressee, to employ – employee, to pay – payee, to trust – trustee.

-ian: Belarusian, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Norwegian; comedian, guardian.

-age:  to leak - leakage, to marry – marriage, to pass – passage, pilgrim – pilgrimage.

 -ance, -ence : important – importance, innocent – innocence, different – difference, insistent - insistence, to perform – performance, resistant – resistance, to resemble – resemblance, violent – violence.

-dom:  free – freedom, wise – wisdom, king – kingdom, bore – boredom.

-hood:  brother – brotherhood, child – childhood, man – manhood, mother – motherhood, neighbour – neighbourhood.

-ion (-ation, -tion, -sion, -ssion)  to collect – collection, to combine – combination, to connect - connection, to dictate – dictation, to imagine – imagination, to include – inclusion, to introduce – introduction, to irritate – irritation, to produce – production, to restrict – restriction, to satisfy – satisfaction, to explode – explosion, to submit – submission, to transmit – transmission.

-ment  to agree – agreement, to develop – development, to govern – government, to improve - improvement, to pay – payment, to require – requirement, to settle – settlement.

-ness  bitter – bitterness, cold – coldness, dark – darkness, fit – fitness, fresh – freshness, kind – kindness, weak – weakness, hopeless – hopelessness.

-ship  dictator – dictatorship, friend – friendship, leader – leadership, member - membership.

-ure  to depart – departure, to please – pleasure, to press – pressure, to seize – seizure.

-ity (-ty, -cy): curious – curiosity, generous – generosity, public – publicity, anxious – anxiety, various – variety, proper – property, secure – security, vital – vitality, private – privacy, inefficient – inefficiency.


-able, -ible  to change – changeable, to eat – eatable, to compare – comparable, to convert – convertible, to understand – understandable, to value – valuable.

-al centre – central, culture – cultural, form – formal, intellect – intellectual, post – postal.

-ant, -ent:  to differ – different, to insist – insistent, to resist – resistant.

-ful beauty – beautiful, care – careful, doubt - doubtful, fruit – fruitful, harm – harmful, use – useful.

-ish: Dane – Danish, Pole – Polish, Scott – Scottish, Swede – Swedish;  red – reddish, brown – brownish, stout - stoutish.

-ive: to act – active, to compare – comparative, effect – effective, to restrict – restrictive, to talk – talkative.

-less hope – hopeless, use – useless, fruit – fruitless, shame – shameless, home – homeless, help – helpless, thought – thoughtless.

-ous: courage – courageous, danger – dangerous, fame – famous, glory – glorious.

-y: cloud – cloudy, dirt – dirty, fog – foggy, frost – frosty, rain – rainy, sun – sunny, thirst – thirsty, wind – windy.


-en:  black – to blacken, broad – to broaden, bright – to brighten, dark – to darken, danger – to endanger, deaf – deafen, long – lengthen, sharp – to sharpen, short – to shorten, strength – to strengthen, tight – to tighten, wide – to widen.

-fy: false – to falsify, horror – to horrify, to simple – to simplify, pure – to purify, clear – to clarify.

-ize: character – to characterize, crystal – to crystallize, sympathy – to sympathize.

Examples of compounds:

Bedroom = bed + room, blackboard = black + board, ice-box = ice + box, newspaper = news + paper, opera-glasses = opera + glasses, reading-room = reading + room, schoolboy = school + boy, shoemaker = shoe + maker, steamship = steam + ship.

Dark-blue = dark + blue, first-class = first + class, red-hot = red + hot, black-bearded = black + bearded.

To whitewash, to broadcast, etc.

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