Wednesday, 6 November 2013

Speakout Advanced p 37.Prefixes and Suffixes. Extra Word Formation Grammar

Common Prefixes in English

A prefix /ˈpriːfɪks/ is a letter or a group of letters attached to the beginning of a word that partly indicates its meaning. For example, the word prefix itself begins with a prefix--pre-, which generally means "before."
Understanding the meanings of the common prefixes can help us deduce the meanings of new words that we encounter. But be careful: some prefixes (such as in-) have more than one meaning (for example, in-: "not", "into").
The table below defines and illustrates some common prefixes.
Common Prefixes
Prefix
Meaning
Example
a-, an-
without
amoral /ˌeɪˈmɒrəl/
ante-
before
antecedent /ˌæntɪˈsiːdnt/
anti-
against
anticlimax /ˌæntiˈklaɪmæks/
auto-
self
autopilot /ˈɔːtəʊpaɪlət/
circum-
around
circumvent /ˌsɜːkəmˈvent/
co-
with
copilot /ˈkəʊˌpaɪlət/
com-, con-
with
companion /kəmˈpæniən/ , contact /ˈkɒntækt/
contra-
against
contradict /ˌkɒntrəˈdɪkt/
de-
off, away from
devalue /ˌdiːˈvæljuː/
dis-
not
disappear /ˌdɪsəˈpɪə(r)/
en-
put into
enclose /ɪnˈkləʊz/
ex-
out of, former
extract (N) /ˈekstrækt/, (V) /ɪkˈstrækt/; ex-president
extra-
beyond, more than
extracurricular /ˌekstrəkəˈrɪkjʊlə/
hetero-
different
heterosexual /ˌhetərəˈsekʃuəl/
homo-
same
homonym /ˈhɒmənɪm/ /ˈhəʊm-/
hyper-
over, more
hyperactive /ˌhaɪpərˈæktɪv/
il-, im-, in-, ir-
not, without
illegal /ɪˈliːɡl/, immoral /ɪˈmɒrəl/, inconsiderate /ˌɪnkənˈsɪdərət/, irresponsible /ˌɪrɪˈspɒnsəbl/
in-
into
inter-
between
intersect /ˌɪntəˈsekt/
intra-
between
intravenous /ˌɪntrəˈviːnəs/
macro-
large
macroeconomics /ˌmækrəʊˌiːkəˈnɒmɪks/
micro-
small
microscope /ˈmaɪkrəskəʊp/
mono-
one
monocle /ˈmɒnəkl/, monologue /ˈmɒnəlɒɡ/
non-
not, without
nonentity /nɒˈnentəti/, nonsense, non-fiction, non-alcoholic.
omni-
all, every
omniscient /ɒmˈnɪsiənt/, omnivore /ˈɒmnɪvɔː(r)/, omnipresent /ˌɒmnɪˈpreznt/
post-
after
postmortem /ˌpəʊst ˈmɔːtəm/
pre-, pro-
before, forward
sub-
under
submarine
syn-
same time
synchronize
trans-
across
transmit
tri-
three
tricycle /ˈtraɪsɪkl/
un-
not
unfinished
uni-
one
unicorn /ˈjuːnɪkɔːn/






Common Suffixes in English

suffix /ˈsʌfɪks/ is a letter or a group of letters attached to the end of a word to form a new word or to alter the grammatical function of the original word. For example, the verb read can be made into the noun reader by adding the suffix -erread can be made into the adjective readable by adding the suffix -able.
Understanding the meanings of the common suffixes can help us deduce the meanings of new words that we encounter. The table below defines and illustrates some common suffixes.
Common Suffixes
Noun Suffixes
Suffix
Meaning
Example
-acy
state or quality
privacy BrE /ˈprɪvəsi/, AmE /ˈpraɪvəsi/
-al
act or process of
refusal /rɪˈfjuːzl/
-ance, -ence
state or quality of
maintenance /ˈmeɪntənəns/, eminence /ˈemɪnəns/
-dom
place or state of being
freedom, kingdom
-er, -or
one who
trainer, protector
-ism
doctrine, belief
communism
-ist
one who
chemist
-ity, -ty
quality of
veracity /vəˈræsəti/
-ment
condition of
argument
-ness
state of being
heaviness /ˈhevinəs/
-ship
position held, the state or quality of
fellowship, professorship,  friendship, ownership /ˈəʊnəʃɪp/
-sion, -tion
the action or state of
concession /kənˈseʃn/, transition,
hesitation, competition, confession



Verb Suffixes
-ate
become
eradicate /ɪˈrædɪkeɪt/
-en
become
enlighten /ɪnˈlaɪtn/
-ify, -fy
make or become
terrify
-ize, -ise
become
civilize



Adjective Suffixes
-able, -ible
capable of being
edible /ˈedəbl/, presentable /prɪˈzentəbl/
-al
regional /ˈriːdʒənl/
-esque
reminiscent of /ˌremɪˈnɪsnt/
picturesque /ˌpɪktʃəˈresk/
-ful
notable for
-ic, -ical
pertaining to
musical, mythic /ˈmɪθɪk/
-ious, -ous
characterized by
nutritious /njuˈtrɪʃəs/, portentous /pɔːˈtentəs/
-ish
having the quality of
fiendish /ˈfiːndɪʃ/
-ive
having the nature of
creative /kriˈeɪtɪv/
-less
without
endless
-y
characterized by
sleazy /ˈsliːzi/


Common Word Roots

root, as its name suggests, is a word or word part from which other words grow, usually through the addition of prefixes and suffixes. The root of the word vocabulary, for example, is voc, a Latin root meaning "word" or "name." This root also appears in the words advocacy, convocation, evocative, vocal, and vociferous /vəˈsɪfərəs/.
Understanding the meanings of the common word roots can help us deduce the meanings of new words that we encounter. But be careful: root words can have more than one meaning and various shades of meaning. In addition, words that look similar may derive from different roots. So when you meet up with a new word, be sure to rely on a dictionary to check its definition.
The table below defines and illustrates some of the most common Greek and Latin roots. The letter in parentheses indicates whether the root word is Greek (G) or Latin (L).
Word Roots
ROOT
MEANING
EXAMPLES
-ast(er)-(G)
star
asteroid, astronomy
-audi- (L)
hear
audible /ˈɔːdəbl/, audience /ˈɔːdiəns/
-auto- (G)
self
automatic /ˌɔːtəˈmætɪk/, autopsy /ˈɔːtɒpsi/
-bene- (L)
good
benefit /ˈbenɪfɪt/, benign /bɪˈnaɪn/
-bio- (G)
life
biography, biology
-chrono- (G)
time
chronic, synchronize
-dict- (L)
say
dictate, diction
-duc- (L)
lead, make
deduce, produce
-gen- (L)
give birth
gene /dʒiːn/, generate
-geo- (G)
earth
geography, geology
-graph- (G)
write
autograph /ˈɔːtəɡrɑːf/, graph /ɡrɑːf/
-jur-, -jus- (L)
law
jury /ˈdʒʊəri/, justice /ˈdʒʌstɪs/
-log-, -logue- (L)
thought
logic, obloquy /ˈɒbləkwi/
-luc- (L)
light
lucid /ˈluːsɪd/, translucent /trænsˈluːsnt/
-man(u)- (L)
hand
manual /ˈmænjuəl/
-mand-, -mend- (L)
order
demand, recommend
-mis-, -mit- (L)
send
missile, transmission
-omni- (L)
all
omnivorous /ɒmˈnɪvərəs/
-path- (G)
feel
empathy, pathetic /pəˈθetɪk/
-phil- (G)
love
philosophy /fəˈlɒsəfi/, bibliophile /ˈbɪbliəfaɪl/
-phon- (G)
sound
phonics /ˈfɒnɪks/, telephone
-photo- (G)
light
photograph, photon /ˈfəʊtɒn/
-port- (L)
carry
export (N) /ˈekspɔːt/ (V) /ɪkˈspɔːt/, portable
-qui(t)- (L)
quiet, rest
acquit /əˈkwɪt/, tranquil /ˈtræŋkwɪl/
-scrib-, -script- (L)
write
ascribe /əˈskraɪb/, script
-sens-, -sent- (L)
feel
resent /rɪˈzent/, sensitive
-tele- (G)
far off
telecast /ˈtelikɑːst/, telephone, television /ˈtelɪvɪʒn/
-terr- (L)
earth
terrain /təˈreɪn/, territory /ˈterətri/
-vac- (L)
empty
evacuate, vacate /vəˈkeɪt/ /veɪˈkeɪt/
-vid-, -vis- (L)
see
visible /ˈvɪzəbl/, video /ˈvɪdiəʊ/


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