Thursday, 28 November 2013

Speakout Advanced p 59. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 1A
Sample answers
Are these facts true or false:
Chewing gum takes 7 years to digest
Humans have 5 senses


KEY
They are both false. Chewing gum is not actually digested by the human body, and passes through the system in the same way as other matter.
Balance, acceleration, pain, body and limb position and relative temperature are also human senses.


Vocabulary
speed camera: a machine which takes pictures of vehicles that are being driven too fast. The pictures are then used as evidence so that the drivers can be punished.

hold to have a belief or an opinion about somebody/ something. E.g. He holds strange views on education. These are commonly held perceptions.

fallacy: a false idea that many people believe is true. E.g. It is a fallacy to say that the camera never lies.

Ex 1B
KEY
Student A (p 59): 
1 The myths are: 
1 that if you drive fast enough you won’t get caught by a speed camera 
2 that it’s safe to use a hands-free mobile while you’re driving 
3 that goldfish have short memories
4 that owls can turn their heads all the way round

2 Experiments disproved: 2 and 3. Science makes 4 impossible. 


1 is technically possible but you would have to drive extremely fast. 
4 is partially true – owls can turn their heads 270 degrees.
 

Student B (p 160): 
1 The myths are: 
5 that sugar makes children hyperactive
6 that you get a cold from getting cold
7 that it damages your computer if you turn it off without shutting it down.
8 that your email is private. 

2 Experiments disproved: 5, 6, and 7. We know 8 is a myth because Google scans our emails for key words in order to target their advertising. 

6 is partially true as getting cold does make it more likely that you will catch a virus.
In 7, although you won’t damage your PC, you could lose data if you turn it off when things are running.

Vocabulary

disprove: /ˌdɪsˈpruːv/  to show that something is wrong or false. E.g. The theory has now been disproved.

experimenter:  a person who carries out a test under controlled conditions to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried.

kit: a set of tools or equipment that you use for a particular purpose. E.g. a first-aid kit. A drum kit. A phone with a hands-free kit.

debunk something: /ˌdiːˈbʌŋk/ to show that an idea, a belief, etc. is false; to show that something is not as good as people think it is. E.g. His theories have been debunked by recent research. A fifteen-year-old schoolboy has debunked this myth.

sprinkle: to shake small pieces of something or drops of a liquid on something. E.g. Sprinkle chocolate on top of the cake. She sprinkled sugar over the strawberries. She sprinkled the strawberries with sugar. The sheets and pillows were sprinkled with lavender water.

owl: /aʊl/ 




vertebra /ˈvɜːtɪbrə/ plural vertebrae /ˈvɜːtɪbreɪ/ /ˈvɜːtɪbriː/ any of the small bones that are connected together to form the spine.

clockwise: /ˈklɒkwaɪz/ moving around in the same direction as the hands of a clock. E.g. Turn the key clockwise. A clockwise direction. In our picture, clockwise from top left, are James Brown, Helen Taylor and Holly Jones. Opp: anticlockwise, counterclockwise.

roughly:  /ˈrʌfli/ approximately but not exactly. E.g. Sales are up by roughly 10%.

p 160

conclusively:  /kənˈkluːsɪvli/ proving something, and allowing no doubt or confusion. E.g. to prove something conclusively. 

-laden: used to form adjectives showing that something is full of, or loaded with, the thing mentioned. E.g. calorie-laden cream cakes.

causal: /ˈkɔːzl/ relating to or acting as a cause. E.g. the causal factors associated with illness. The causal relationship between poverty and disease.

-loaded: used to form adjectives showing that something is full of, or loaded with, the thing mentioned. E.g. a sugar-loaded drink.

rate: rate somebody/something (as) something| rate as something to have or think that somebody/ something has a particular level of quality, value, etc. E.g. The show was rated (as) a success by critics and audiences.

dunk: immerse or dip in water. E.g. he was dunked head first in the cold swimming pool.

chill: chill somebody to make somebody very cold. E.g. They were chilled by the icy wind. Let's go home, I'm chilled to the bone(= very cold).  

harbour: harbour something to contain something and allow it to develop. Sp. albergar. E.g. Your dishcloth can harbour many germs.   

epic: very great and impressive. E.g. a tragedy of epic proportions.
 
bypass something to ignore a rule, an official system or somebody in authority, especially in order to get something done quickly. E.g. They let us bypass the usual admissions procedure. 

rigmarole: /ˈrɪɡmərəʊl/ a long and complicated process that is annoying and seems unnecessary. E.g. I couldn't face the whole rigmarole of getting a work permit again. 

spreadsheet: /ˈspredʃiːt/ a computer program that is used, for example, when doing financial or project planning. You enter data in rows and columns and the program calculates costs, etc. from it.

musing: a period of thinking carefully about something or telling people your thoughts about it. Reflexión. E.g. We had to sit and listen to his musings on life.

up and running: working fully and correctly. E.g. It will be a lot easier when we have the database up and running.

gen: information. E.g. you’ve got more gen on him than we have.

(be) up in arms (about/over something) (informal) (of a group of people) to be very angry about something and ready to protest strongly about it. E.g. teachers are up in arms about new school tests.

Ex 2A
KEY
1 a fallacy



2 conventional wisdom, a commonly held perception, intuitively true



3 uncover



4 debunk, disprove



5 verify

Ex 2B
KEY
1 It is a commonly held perception that no one can survive a plane crash. 



2 Conventional wisdom says you shouldn’t swim soon after eating. 



3 Scientists in Panama recently disproved the myth that sloths are lazy. 

sloth: /sləʊθ/ a South American animal that lives in trees and moves very slowly.


4 The myth that you lose most of your body heat through your head has been debunked/disproved



5 It seems intuitively true that long-distance running is bad for your knees, but recent research suggests otherwise.

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