Saturday, 30 November 2013

Speakout Advanced p 61. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 6A
debunk something: /ˌdiːˈbʌŋk/ to show that an idea, a belief, etc. is false; to show that something is not as good as people think it is. E.g. His theories have been debunked by recent research. A fifteen-year-old schoolboy has debunked this myth.

out: available to everyone; known to everyone. E.g. When does her new book come out? Word always gets out (= people find out about things) no matter how careful you are. Out with it! (= say what you know) 

fallacy: a false idea that many people believe is true. E.g. It is a fallacy to say that the camera never lies.

inasmuch as /ˌɪnəzˈmʌtʃəz/ used to add a comment on something that you have just said and to say in what way it is true. Sp. si consideramos que, en la medida en que. E.g. He was a very unusual musician inasmuch as he was totally deaf. They were rivals inasmuch as they had both published works on the subject.
 
p 160

imaging: /ˈɪmɪdʒɪŋ/ the process of capturing, storing and showing an image on a computer screen. E.g. imaging software.

PET: /pet/ (medical) the abbreviation for positron emission tomography (a process that produces an image of your brain or of another part inside your body). E.g. a PET scan.

sushi: /ˈsuːʃi/ a Japanese dish of small cakes of cold cooked rice, flavoured with vinegar and served with raw fish, etc. on top. E.g. a sushi bar.

matador: /ˈmætədɔː(r)/ a person who fights and kills the bull in a bullfight.

cattle: cows and bulls that are kept as farm animals for their milk or meat. E.g. a herd of cattle. Twenty head of cattle (= twenty cows). Dairy/beef cattle. The prisoners were herded into trucks like cattle.

colour-blind: unable to see the difference between some colours, especially red and green.

Ex 7A

hang out
: (informal) to spend a lot of time in a place relaxing or enjoying oneself. E.g. The local kids hang out at the mall. E.g. musicians hang out with their own kind.

Ex 7B

KEY

1 The message is that technology is not a negative influence and is actually turning children into quick-thinking, multi-tasking, high-achieving citizens of the 21st century’.
 

dire: extremely serious. (Of a warning or threat) presaging disaster. E.g. there were dire warnings from the traffic organizations. The media is full of dire warnings about young people and modern life.

boil down to something (not used in the progressive tenses) (of a situation, problem, etc.) to have something as a main or basic part. Sp. reducirse a. E.g. In the end, what it all boils down to is money, or the lack of it. The book boils down to one message.

doom-mongers: people who spread rumours that terrible things will happen. A person who predicts disaster. E.g. the situation is nowhere near as critical as doom-mongers will have you believe.
scaremonger: /ˈskeəmʌŋɡə(r)/ a person who spreads stories deliberately to make people frightened or nervous. Scaremongering: (N) e.g. journalists accused of scaremongering.

Ex 8A
KEY
looked back 
look back (on something): to think about something in your past. Reflect on. E.g. to look back on your childhood.

stood around

Take away

Switch off

thought it over 
think something over to consider something carefully, especially before reaching a decision. E.g. He'd like more time to think things over. I've been thinking over what you said.

boils down to
boil down to something (not used in the progressive tenses) (of a situation, problem, etc.) to have something as a main or basic part. Sp. reducirse a. E.g. In the end, what it all boils down to is money, or the lack of it. The book boils down to one message.

carry on

speeds up
speed up/ speed something up to move or happen faster; to make something move or happen faster. E.g. The train soon speeded up. Can you try and speed things up a bit? They have speeded up production of the new car.

turning them into 
turn somebody/something (from something) into something to make somebody/ something become something. E.g. Ten years of prison had turned him into an old man. The prince was turned into a frog by the witch.

find out 

Ex 8B
KEY
(up) increase or improve:

speed up/ speed something up to move or happen faster; to make something move or happen faster. E.g. The train soon speeded up. Can you try and speed things up a bit? They have speeded up production of the new car.

brighten up make or become more light. E.g. most of the country should brighten up later.

jazz something up (informal)1 to make something more interesting, exciting or attractive. E.g. Jazz up the room with some new furniture. Jazz up an all-white kitchen with red tiles. 2 to make a piece of music sound more modern, or more like popular music or jazz. E.g. It's a jazzed up version of an old tune.

(on) continue:

go on

carry on

keep on

(off ) remove, cancel or end something 

pension somebody off (especially British English) [usually passive] to allow or force somebody to retire and to pay them a pension. E.g. He was pensioned off and his job given to a younger man. (informal, figurative) That car of yours should have been pensioned off years ago.


cry off (British English, informal) to say that you cannot do something that you promised to do. E.g. She said she was coming to the party, but cried off at the last moment. We were going to Spain together and he cried off at the last moment.

call something off to cancel something; to decide that something will not happen. E.g. to call off a deal/ trip/ strike. They have called off their engagement (= decided not to get married). The game was called off because of bad weather.

switch off

(out) be in the open

find out (about something/somebody)/ find out something (about something/ somebody) to get some information about something/ somebody by asking, reading, etc. E.g. She'd been seeing the boy for a while, but didn't want her parents to find out. I haven't found anything out about him yet. Find out what, when, etc… Can you find out what time the meeting starts? Find out that… We found out later that we had been at the same school.

speak out (against something) to state your opinions publicly, especially in opposition to something and in a way that takes courage. E.g. He was the only one to speak out against the decision. I will continue to speak out on matters of public concern.

stand out (as something) to be much better or more important than somebody/ something. E.g. Four points stand out as being more important than the rest.

stand out (from/against something) to be easily seen; to be noticeable. E.g. The lettering stood out well against the dark background. She's the sort of person who stands out in a crowd.

call somebody out 1 to ask somebody to come, especially to an emergency. E.g. to call out an engineer/ a plumber/ the troops.

(down) decrease or reduce

slow down



narrow something down (to something) to reduce the number of possibilities or choices. E.g. We have narrowed down the list to four candidates.

crack down (on somebody/something) to try harder to prevent an illegal activity and deal more severely with those who are caught doing it. E.g. Police are cracking down on drug dealers.



(away) removal or disposal (
the act of getting rid of something)
  
put somebody away [often passive] (informal) to send somebody to prison, to a mental hospital, etc. E.g. he deserves to be put away forever.
 
put something away 1 to put something in the place where it is kept because you have finished using it. E.g. I'm just going to put the car away (= in the garage). 2 to save money to spend later. E.g. She has a few thousand dollars put away for her retirement. 3 (informal) to eat or drink large quantities of something. E.g. He must have put away a bottle of whisky last night.



blow somebody away 1 to kill somebody by shooting them. The hero blows away the bad guys. 2 to impress somebody a lot or to make them very happy. E.g. I’m blown away by his new poem. 3 to defeat somebody easily. E.g. Mitchell blew away the other runners.

take away

(back) return (to the past)

bring somebody/something back to return somebody/ something. E.g. Please bring back all library books by the end of the week. He brought me back (= gave me a ride home) in his car.
bring something back 1 to make somebody remember something or think about it again. E.g. The photographs brought back many pleasant memories.


think back (to something) to think about something that happened in the past. E.g. I keep thinking back to the day I arrived here.

look back (on something): to think about something in your past. Reflect on. E.g. to look back on your childhood.
 
cast your mind back (to something) to make yourself think about something that happened in the past. E.g. I want you to cast your minds back to the first time you met.

(around) with no direction or aim
  
mess around (British English also mess about)1 to behave in a silly and annoying way, especially instead of doing something useful. Fool around. E.g. Will you stop messing around and get on with some work? I messed around in my first year at college. 2 to spend time doing something for pleasure in a relaxed way. E.g. We spent the day messing around on the river.

stand around to stand somewhere and do nothing, often when you should be doing something. E.g.   Don't let the boss see you standing around doing nothing.

hang around (…) (informal) to wait or stay near a place, not doing very much. E.g. You hang around here in case he comes, and I'll go on ahead.

(over) think or talk about 

mull something over to spend time thinking carefully about a plan or proposal. Consider. E.g. I need some time to mull it over before making a decision. She began to mull over the various possibilities.


pore over something to look at or read something very carefully. Examine. Be absorbed in reading or studying (something). E.g. His lawyers are poring over the small print in the contract.  I spent hours poring over cookery books.
 
look something over: to examine something to see how good, big, etc. it is. E.g. We looked over the house again before we decided we would rent it.

think something over: to consider something carefully, especially before reaching a decision. E.g. He'd like more time to think things over. I've been thinking over what you said.

Ex 9
1 down
crack down (on somebody/something) to try harder to prevent an illegal activity and deal more severely with those who are caught doing it. E.g. Police are cracking down on drug dealers.




 
on 



2 over
mull something over to spend time thinking carefully about a plan or proposal. Consider. E.g. I need some time to mull it over before making a decision. She began to mull over the various possibilities.



down 

shortlist: a small number of candidates for a job, etc, who have been chosen from all the people who applied. Sp. lista de seleccionados. E.g. to draw up a shortlist. A shortlist for a literary prize. She is on my shortlist of great singers.

narrow something down (to something) to reduce the number of possibilities or choices. E.g. We have narrowed down the list to four candidates.



3 off
call something off to cancel something; to decide that something will not happen. E.g. to call off a deal/ trip/ strike. They have called off their engagement (= decided not to get married). The game was called off because of bad weather.



up 
brighten up make or become more light. E.g. most of the country should brighten up later.



4 around
stand around to stand somewhere and do nothing, often when you should be doing something. E.g.   Don't let the boss see you standing around doing nothing.
 


away
put something away 1 to put something in the place where it is kept because you have finished using it. E.g. I'm just going to put the car away (= in the garage). 




5 out
find out (about something/somebody)/ find out something (about something/ somebody) to get some information about something/ somebody by asking, reading, etc. E.g. She'd been seeing the boy for a while, but didn't want her parents to find out. I haven't found anything out about him yet. Find out what, when, etc… Can you find out what time the meeting starts? Find out that… We found out later that we had been at the same school.



back

bring something back 1 to make somebody remember something or think about it again. E.g. The photographs brought back many pleasant memories.


Ex 10A
1 Cast your mind back
cast your mind back (to something) to make yourself think about something that happened in the past. E.g. I want you to cast your minds back to the first time you met.




2 find out



3 narrow down 
narrow something down (to something) to reduce the number of possibilities or choices. E.g. We have narrowed down the list to four candidates.




4 mull over
 mull something over to spend time thinking carefully about a plan or proposal. Consider. E.g. I need some time to mull it over before making a decision. She began to mull over the various possibilities.


p 152
Ex 2A

1 over  
talk something over (with somebody) to discuss something thoroughly, especially in order to reach an agreement or make a decision. E.g. You'll find it helpful to talk things over with a friend. They talked over the proposal and decided to give it their approval.


2 up  
look up (informal) (of business, somebody's situation, etc.) to become better. Improve. E.g. At last things were beginning to look up.



3 on  
soldier on /ˈsəʊldʒə(r)/ to continue with what you are doing or trying to achieve, especially when this is difficult or unpleasant. E.g. His partner left and he had to soldier on alone.



4 off  
kill somebody/something off 1 to make a lot of plants, animals, etc. die. E.g. Some drugs kill off useful bacteria in the user's body. 2 to stop or get rid of something. E.g. He has effectively killed off any political opposition.



5 down  
calm down/ calm somebody/something down to become or make somebody become calm. E.g. Look, calm down! We'll find her. We waited inside until things calmed down. He took a few deep breaths to calm himself down.



6 away 
tidy something away (British English) to put things in the place where they belong, especially where they cannot be seen, so that a room appears tidy. E.g. Can you tidy away your clothes, please?

tidy (up): to make something look neat by putting things in the place where they belong. E.g. I spent all morning cleaning and tidying. When you cook, could you please tidy up after yourself. Tidy something (up) to tidy (up) a room.



7 back 
slip: to fall to a lower level; to become worse. E.g. His popularity has slipped recently. The director never lets the tension slip. That's three times she's beaten me—I must be slipping! Pre-tax profits in the first half, however, slipped back by 25 per cent due to higher interest charges


8 around
lounge: /laʊndʒ/ (+ adverb/preposition) to stand, sit or lie in a lazy way. Laze around. E.g.  Several students were lounging around, reading newspapers.

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