Al Gore served during the 1990s as 45th Vice President of the US, and ran for president in the 2000 US presidential elections, when he lost out to George W. Bush. Since then he has become very active in campaigning against climate change, and in 2006 released An Inconvenient Truth, a feature-length presentation on the effects of climate change and the action needing to be taken. In 2007, he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Annie Lennox is a Scottish musician who found fame in the 1980s with Dave Stewart in Eurythmics, before embarking on a solo career in the 1990s. She has, for many years, been a political and social activist, championing a range of causes. She is best known for her work raising money and awareness for HIV charities in Africa. Sting is a British rock musician and actor who found fame in the 1970s/early 1980s with The Police, before becoming a successful solo artist. He has been an activist for many causes since the early 1990s and is perhaps best known for his work with Amnesty International and in founding the Rainforest Foundation Fund, working closely with Amazon Indians to help conserve the rainforest.
1 She became involved in an HIV campaign started by Nelson Mandela.
2 The fact that she’s dedicated time to other people, even though she’s very successful herself.
3 Because he was serving under Bill Clinton as Vice President (and Bill Clinton had a very high profile in the news).
a high/low profile: the amount of attention somebody/something has from the public. E.g. This issue has had a high profile in recent months. I advised her to keep a low profile for the next few days (= not to attract attention).
4 He admired him for his integrity.
5 Her father wrote a book on how to write a hit song, and Sting read it.
6 Start her own campaign to save the rainforests.
awareness (of something)/ awareness (that…) knowing something; knowing that something exists and is important; being interested in something. E.g. to raise/heighten/increase public awareness of something.
HIV: human immunodeficiency virus. E.g. to be infected with HIV. To be HIV-positive/ HIV-negative(= to have had a medical test which shows that you are/ are not infected with HIV).
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
cut straight through to the heart: appeal directly to the emotions
huge swathes: an enormous amount.
a role model: a person that you admire and try to copy. E.g. We need positive role models for young women to aspire to. Parents are a child's primary role models.
the turn of the century/year: the time when a new century/ year starts. E.g. It was built at the turn of the century.
plaudits /ˈplɔːdɪts/ praise and approval. E.g. His work won him plaudits from the critics.
offset, offset, offset; offsetting: to use one cost, payment or situation in order to cancel or reduce the effect of another. Sp. compensar. E.g. offset something Prices have risen in order to offset the increased cost of materials. Offset something against something What expenses can you offset against tax?
embark on/ upon something: (formal) to start to do something new or difficult. E.g. She is about to embark on a diplomatic career. Remember these basic rules before embarking upon major home improvements.
spark: to cause something to start or develop, especially suddenly. E.g. The proposal would spark a storm of protest around the country. The organizers are hoping to spark some interest in young people.
knowledgeable (about something): /ˈnɒlɪdʒəbl/ knowing a lot. Well informed. E.g. She is very knowledgeable about plants.
2 Al Gore
overshadow somebody/something to make somebody/ something seem less important, or successful. E.g. He had always been overshadowed by his elder sister. Domestic policy was soon overshadowed by political unrest abroad.
4 Annie Lennox
5 Al Gore
groundbreaking: making new discoveries; using new methods. E.g. a groundbreaking piece of research.
estimate: /ˈestɪmət/ a judgement that you make without having the exact details or figures about the size, amount, cost, etc. of something. E.g. I can give you a rough estimate of the amount of wood you will need.
7 Al Gore
estimate: /ˈestɪmeɪt/ to form an idea of the cost, size, value etc. of something, but without calculating it exactly. E.g. Police estimate the crowd at 30000. We estimated (that) it would cost about €5000.
curriculum /kəˈrɪkjələm/ : (pl. curricula /kəˈrɪkjələ/)
present perfect continuous 1,
past perfect 3,
past perfect continuous 6,
future perfect 7,
future perfect continuous 5,
perfect infinitive 2
1 1, 2 and 4
2 3 and 6
3 5 and 7
4 1, 5 and 6
1 has been providing
2 had been living
3 will have been
4 have closed
5 appeared to have abandoned
6 will have been running
1 Yes. The workers have been marching since 8.00 this morning.
2 They had been talking throughout the whole lesson.
3 Yes. This time next year she will have been working here for forty years.
4 Yes. It’s 8.00. They will have arrived by now.
5 He seems to have forgotten how to play!
6 That’s right. She had only been working there for two months when the company closed.