Wednesday, 13 November 2013

Speakout Advanced p 44. Keys and Vocabulary.

Ex 1A
alibi: /ˈæləbaɪ/ evidence that proves that a person was in another place at the time of a crime and so could not have committed it. E.g. The suspects had alibis for the day of the robbery.


fraudulent: /ˈfrɔːdjələnt/ intended to cheat somebody, usually in order to make money illegally. E.g. fraudulent advertising. Fraudulent insurance claims.


evidence: the facts, signs or objects that make you believe that something is true. Sp. pruebas. E.g. without evidence, they can’t bring a charge.


appeal a formal request to a court or to somebody in authority for a judgement or a decision to be changed. Sp. recurso, apelación. E.g. to lodge an appeal.
lodge something (with somebody) (against somebody/something) (formal) to make a formal statement about something to a public organization or authority. Register, submit. E.g. They lodged a compensation claim against the factory. Portugal has lodged a complaint with the International Court of Justice.


courtroom: a room in which trials or other legal cases are held.


Ex 1B

conviction (for something) the act of finding somebody guilty of a crime in court; the fact of having been found guilty. Sp. condena. E.g. She has six previous convictions for theft. He plans to appeal against his conviction. An offence which carries, on conviction, a sentence of not more than five years' imprisonment.

look up to somebody to admire or respect somebody. E.g. he needed a model, someone to look up to.


alibi: /ˈæləbaɪ/ evidence that proves that a person was in another place at the time of a crime and so could not have committed it. E.g. The suspects had alibis for the day of the robbery.


evidence: the facts, signs or objects that make you believe that something is true. Sp. pruebas. E.g. without evidence, they can’t bring a charge.


appeal a formal request to a court or to somebody in authority for a judgement or a decision to be changed. E.g. to lodge an appeal.
lodge something (with somebody) (against somebody/something) (formal) to make a formal statement about something to a public organization or authority. Register, submit. E.g. They lodged a compensation claim against the factory. Portugal has lodged a complaint with the International Court of Justice.

commit suicide kill yourself  

attorney /əˈtɜːni/ a lawyer, especially one who can act for somebody in court.

a college degree both the course or study and the qualification 

community college: (in the US) a college that is mainly for students from the local community and that offers programmes that are two years long, including programmes in practical skills. 

law school: a US college at which people study to become lawyers. It is usually part of a university, and students enter it after they have their first degree. E.g. She’s at Harvard Law School.

split up end a marriage or other romantic relationship. 

hurdle
1 each of a series of vertical frames that a person or horse jumps over in a race. E.g. His horse fell at the final hurdle.
2 a problem or difficulty that must be solved or dealt with before you can achieve something. Obstacle. E.g. The next hurdle will be getting her parents' agreement. Well we've cleared the first hurdle; let's see what happens next. We worked hard for three months on the deal only to see it fall at the final hurdle. It was hard, but I took it one hurdle at a time.

convict somebody (of something) /kənˈvɪkt/ (V) to decide and state officially in court that somebody is guilty of a crime. Sp. condenar. E.g. a convicted murderer. He was convicted of fraud. There wasn't enough evidence to convict her.

convict: /ˈkɒnvɪkt/ (also informal con) (N) a person who has been found guilty of a crime and sent to prison. E.g. an escaped convict.

Bloodied: /ˈblʌdid/ covered in blood. E.g. his bruised and bloodied nose.

perpetrator: someone who does something harmful or illegal. 

wipe: to rub something against a surface, in order to remove dirt or liquid from it; to rub a surface with a cloth, etc. in order to clean it. E.g. wipe something (on something). Please wipe your feet on the mat. He wiped his hands on a clean towel. He wiped his plate clean with a piece of bread.

pound: to beat quickly and loudly. E.g. Her heart was pounding with excitement.

lid: a cover over a container that can be removed or opened by turning it or lifting it. E.g. a dustbin lid. I can't get the lid off this jar. 


Ex 2
KEY

1 Because he had an alibi. 



2 No, she never doubted his innocence. 



3 Kenny asked her to. He had tried to commit suicide, and they had no more money for lawyers. 



4 Her devotion to the case put her personal life under strain, and she later divorced. 

 strain: pressure on somebody/something because they have too much to do or manage, or something very difficult to deal with; the problems, worry or anxiety that this produces. E.g. Their marriage is under great strain at the moment.



5 A piece of bloodied curtain the perpetrator had wiped his hands on. 



6 She asked some of the other law students to say that they were doing a project on the Waters case.


Ex 4
KEY

1 protest their innocence 



2 fresh evidence
 


3 under arrest 



4 early release 



5 perfect alibi 



6 brought to justice 



7 make an appeal 



8 previous convictions 

p 151
Ex 1A
KEY

1 on 



2 on 



3 into 



4 for 



5 with 



6 into
 


7 in 



8 with 



9 to 



10 at
 
Ex 1B 
KEY

a) 3 – comes into force 
vandalism: the crime of destroying or damaging something, especially public property, deliberately and for no good reason. E.g. an act of vandalism.



b) 1 – put on probation 
probation: /prəˈbeɪʃn/ a system that allows a person who has committed a crime not to go to prison if they behave well and if they see an official (called a probation officer) regularly for a fixed period of time. Sp. libertad condicional. E.g. The prisoner was put on probation. He was given two years' probation.



c) 9 – posed a serious threat to (the public) 
harden somebody/something/yourself to make somebody less kind or less affected by extreme situations. E.g. Joe sounded different, hardened by the war. They were hardened criminals(= they showed no regret for their crimes).



d) 4 – was given points on his licence 



e) 2 – went on the rampage
frenzied: /ˈfrenzid/ involving a lot of activity and strong emotions in a way that is often violent or frightening and not under control. Sp. frenético, enloquecido. E.g. a frenzied attack. Frenzied activity.
rampage: a sudden period of wild and violent behaviour, often causing damage and destruction. E.g. Gangs of youths went on the rampage in the city yesterday. A state of emergency was declared following overnight rampages by student demonstrators.

 


f ) 5 – help the police with their inquiries 



g) 8 – charged with assault 
charge: to accuse somebody formally of a crime so that there can be a trial in court. E.g. Several people were arrested but nobody was charged. He was charged with murder.
assault: the crime of attacking somebody physically. E.g. Both men were charged with assault. Sexual assaults.



h) 7 – held in custody 
confine somebody/something (in something) /kənˈfaɪn/ [usually passive] to keep a person or an animal in a small or closed space. E.g. Keep the dog confined in a suitable travelling cage. Here the river is confined in a narrow channel. The soldiers concerned were confined to barracks(= had to stay in the barracks, as a punishment).

custody: /ˈkʌstədi/ the state of being in prison, especially while waiting for trial. E.g. After the riot, 32 people were taken into police custody. He was remanded in custody (= sent to prison until his trial), charged with the murder of a policeman.



i) 10 – fired tear-gas at (the protesters) 
CS gas: a gas that stings the eyes, producing tears and making it difficult to breathe. E.g. CS gas is sometimes used to control crowds.



j) 6 – An investigation is being held into the causes (of the accident)


Ex 5A
deterrent: /dɪˈterənt/ a thing that makes somebody less likely to do something (= that deters them). E.g. Hopefully his punishment will act as a deterrent to others.

turn to something to start to do or to use something in an attempt to help yourself when you are having difficulty dealing with a situation. E.g. turn to crime/ drink/ drugs:  He turned to drugs after his wife left him.

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