Tuesday, 29 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 29.Nature Versus Nurture. Listening

I’m going to talk about the influence of nature (1)_________ nurture. And I’d like to begin by (2)___________ that, as I (3)__________ it, (4)________ the strongest influence has to be ‘nurture’. The (5)______________ this is that I believe the way we’re (6)______________ will have a (7)______________ influence on how we behave than our genes. I mean, some people (8)______________ our abilities are determined (9)_________ much exclusively by our genes, so if your father had a natural (10)_____________ mathematics, then there’s a pretty good chance that you might inherit that same ability. (11)____________, I think it’s ridiculous to suggest this. I think that when a parent is interested in something, then (12)______________ that when they have children, they will try to (13)_____________ the children the same sort of interest, they will (14)__________ their knowledge, their passion for the subject, they are quite (15)___________ to engage the child (16)__________ activities related to that field. And it’s (17)____________ of this that the child may also develop strengths or abilities in the same field. I absolutely (18)_________ the idea that nature (19)__________ us with these (20)________ abilities. I (21)____________, you can be born with the best natural musical ability in the universe, but if you don’t practise the piano, then nothing will (22)_____________. On the other hand, I think you can teach people to do just about anything, (23)____________ you dedicate time and stimulate the child. So, to (24)__________ I would have to argue that ‘nurture’ is more important than ‘nature’.
C: Let’s take questions from the (25)_____________.
Q: People often very much (26)________________ their parents in (27)___________ of their physical appearance, and even their characters. Why then, do you not think that it is equally possible that a child will inherit its parents’ ability, or intelligence?
S: That’s a good question, because yes, we can see that we do inherit physical characteristics from our parents. However, the point I’m trying (28)_____________ is that we cannot rely on something we are (29)______________  be born with. For (30)____________, the influence of nurture is (31)____________ stronger. I (32)__________ that everyone has the same potential, they just need to be given the right conditions to (33)__________ and develop that potential.



KEY
1. versus



2. stating 



3. see
As I see it 



4. by far 



5. reason I think 
The reason I think this is that 



6. brought up 



7. much stronger 



8. will argue that 
some people will argue that



9. pretty
pretty much: almost; almost completely. E.g. One dog looks pretty much like another to me. 



10. ability for
scientist with a natural ability for mathematics



11. Personally



12. the chances are
the chances are (that) it is likely that. E.g. The chances are you won't have to pay.



13. instil in
instil something (in/into somebody): to gradually make somebody feel, think or behave in a particular way over a period of time. Sp. inculcar. E.g. to instil confidence/discipline/fear into somebody.



14. pass on
pass on: to give someone something that someone else has given you. E.g. When you’ve read this message, please pass it on.



15. likely



16. in
engage in something/ engage somebody in something (formal) to take part in something; to make somebody take part in something. E.g. Even in prison, he continued to engage in criminal activities. She tried desperately to engage him in conversation.



17. as a result
it's as a result of this that



18. reject
I absolutely reject the idea that  



19. endows
endow somebody/something with something: to give something to somebody/something. E.g. to endow somebody with a responsibility.



20. inborn
inborn: an inborn quality is one that you are born with. Innate. E.g. Some people have an inborn tendency to put on weight.  



21. mean
I mean,... 



22. come of it
come of/from something: to be the result of something. E.g. I made a few enquiries, but nothing came of it in the end. Come of/from doing something That comes of eating too much!



23. so long as
so/as long as: only if. E.g. We'll go as long as the weather is good.



24. conclude
To conclude I would have to argue that... 



25. floor 
the floor [singular] the part of a building where discussions or debates are held, especially in a parliament; the people who attend a discussion or debate. E.g. Opposition politicians registered their protest on the floor of the House. We will now take any questions from the floor.
 
 
 
26. resemble
 
 
 
27. terms
in terms of something: used to show what aspect of a subject you are talking about or how you are thinking about it. E.g. The job is great in terms of salary, but it has its disadvantages. 
 
 
 
28. to make
The point I’m trying to make is that... 



29. assumed to
We are assumed to be born with 



30. me
For me,... 



31. far 
far stronger 



32. believe
I believe that...



33. nurture
nurture something to help somebody/something to develop and be successful. E.g. It's important to nurture a good working relationship. My father nurtured a love of art in me. Her teacher recognized and nurtured her musical talent from an early age. 
KEY
 
Transcript
S: OK, I’m going to talk about the influence of nature versus nurture. And I’d like to begin by stating that, as I see it, by far the strongest influence has to be ‘nurture’. The reason I think this is that I believe the way we’re brought up will have a much stronger influence on how we behave than anything that’s in our genes. I mean, some people will argue that our abilities are determined pretty much exclusively by our genes, so if your father was a great scientist with a natural ability for mathematics, then there’s a pretty good chance that you might inherit that same ability. Personally, I think it’s ridiculous to suggest this. I think that when a parent has a particular strength, or interest, or achieves something wonderful in a particular field, then the chances are that when they have children, they will try to instil in the children the same kind of interest, they will pass on their knowledge, their passion for the subject, they are quite likely to engage the child in activities related to that field, perhaps for quite a lot of the child’s time. And it’s as a result of this that the child may also develop strengths or abilities in the same field. I absolutely reject the idea that nature endows us with these inborn abilities. I mean, you can be born with the best natural musical ability in the universe, but if you don’t practise the piano, then nothing will come of it. On the other hand, I think you can teach people to do just about anything, so long as you dedicate time and give the child the right kind of encouragement, or put them in the right situation. So, to conclude I would have to argue that ‘nurture’ plays a much stronger role in the development of who you are, and the talents that you develop than ‘nature’ does.
C: OK. Thank you. And now, let’s open the discussion up and take questions from the floor. Does anyone have a question for one of the speakers?
Q: Yes, I’d like to ask a question to the last speaker. I think it is quite obvious if you look around you, that people often very much resemble their parents in terms of their physical appearance, and even their characters. Why then, do you not think that it is equally possible that a child will inherit its parents’ ability, or intelligence?
S: That’s a good question, because yes, we can see that we do inherit physical characteristics from our parents. However, the point I’m trying to make is that we cannot rely on something we are assumed to be born with. For me, the influence of nurture is far stronger. I believe that everyone has the same potential, they just need to be given the right conditions to nurture and develop that potential. Thank you for the question.
C: Thank you. Are there any other questions?

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