Wednesday, 23 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 23. Keys and Vocabulary

Warm up
A- Discuss how you would define these words:  preconception, stigma, stereotype, prejudice.

preconception: /priːkənˈsepʃn/ an idea or opinion that is formed before you have enough information or experience. Assumption. E.g. a book that will challenge your preconceptions about rural life.



stigma: /ˈstɪɡmə/ feelings of disapproval that people have about particular illnesses or ways of behaving. E.g. the social stigma of alcoholism. There is no longer any stigma attached to being divorced. 



stereotype: /ˈsteriətaɪp/ a fixed idea or image that many people have of a particular type of person or thing, but which is often not true in reality. E.g. cultural/gender/racial stereotypes. He doesn't conform to the usual stereotype of the businessman with a dark suit and briefcase.



prejudice: /ˈpredʒudɪs/ an unreasonable dislike of or preference for a person, group, custom, etc, especially when it is based on their race, religion, sex, etc. E.g. a victim of racial prejudice. Their decision was based on ignorance and prejudice. There is little prejudice against workers from other EU states.

 
B- Discuss which common stereotypes of these groups exist in your country, and how far you agree
with them:
university students, homeless people, foreign tourists, the elderly and teenagers.

Ex 1A

Vocabulary 

uncover something to discover something that was previously hidden or secret. E.g. Police have uncovered a plot to kidnap the President's son.

preconception: /priːkənˈsepʃn/ an idea or opinion that is formed before you have enough information or experience. Assumption. E.g. a book that will challenge your preconceptions about rural life.

dispel: /dɪˈspel/ to make something, especially a feeling or belief, go away or disappear. E.g. His speech dispelled any fears about his health. 

stigma: /ˈstɪɡmə/ feelings of disapproval that people have about particular illnesses or ways of behaving. E.g. the social stigma of alcoholism. There is no longer any stigma attached to being divorced. 

stereotype: /ˈsteriətaɪp/ a fixed idea or image that many people have of a particular type of person or thing, but which is often not true in reality. E.g. cultural/gender/racial stereotypes. He doesn't conform to the usual stereotype of the businessman with a dark suit and briefcase.

prejudice: /ˈpredʒudɪs/ an unreasonable dislike of or preference for a person, group, custom, etc, especially when it is based on their race, religion, sex, etc. E.g. a victim of racial prejudice. Their decision was based on ignorance and prejudice. There is little prejudice against workers from other EU states.

encounter: /ɪnˈkaʊntə(r)/ Come across. E.g. She was the most remarkable woman he had ever encountered.

Ex 1B
KEY

1 A 



2 S 



3 S 



4 A 



5 A 



6 S


Ex 2

KEY

1 ‘lazy’, ‘politically apathetic’, ‘do useless degrees’ ‘wastes tax payers’ money’ ‘can’t cook’ and ‘spends all his money on beer’ 



2 Nervous that he wouldn’t be able to deal with the accusations. 



3 He expected him to make accusations against him. 



4 They talked about life as a student in the 1960s and compared it with student life today. 




5 That she was fiercely independent. 
 Fiercely:  used for emphasizing what you are saying, especially how strong or severe something is. E.g. Publishing has become a fiercely competitive industry.



6 She is hoping to tackle the stigma often associated with being blind (that it makes you helpless) 
tackle something to make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation. E.g. The government is determined to tackle inflation. I think I'll tackle the repairs next weekend. Firefighters tackled a blaze in a garage last night.



7 She leads a fairly normal life, doing most things for herself, but she is unable to drive.






8 She feels that she is able to ‘see’ people for who they really are, on the inside, rather than just how they want to present themselves, by their appearance. She is less likely to judge people for how they look. She is able to ‘see with her heart’ rather than her eyes.


Transcript
Vocabulary

tackle something to make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation. E.g. The government is determined to tackle inflation. I think I'll tackle the repairs next weekend. Firefighters tackled a blaze in a garage last night.



sign in/out / sign somebody in/out to write your/somebody's name when you arrive at or leave an office, a club, etc. E.g. All visitors must sign in on arrival. You must sign guests out when they leave the club.

Against: close to, touching or hitting somebody/something. E.g. Put the piano there, against the wall. The rain beat against the windows.

surreal: /səˈriːəl/ very strange; more like a dream than reality, with ideas and images mixed together in a strange way. E.g. surreal images. The play was a surreal mix of fact and fantasy.

have second thoughts: to change your opinion after thinking about something again. E.g. You're not having second thoughts about it, are you? I was beginning to have second thoughts. 

Rail: To express objections or criticisms in bitter, harsh, or abusive language. Scold. 
rail against someone or something to complain vehemently about someone or something. E.g. Why are you railing against me? What did I do? Leonard is railing against the tax increase again.
rail at someone (about something) to complain loudly or violently to someone about something. E.g. Jane railed at the payroll clerk about not having received her check. I am not responsible for your problems. Don't rail at me!
a rail of: E.g. A constant rail of accusations and insults. 
a hail of something a large number or amount of something that is aimed at somebody in order to harm them. E.g. a hail of arrows/bullets. A hail of abuse. The proposals met with a hail of criticism.  Another group would be subjected to a hail of accusations.

riot: /ˈraɪət/ a situation in which a group of people behave in a violent way in a public place, often as a protest. E.g. One prison guard was killed when a riot broke out in the jail.

directness: /dəˈrektnəs/ /dɪˈrektnəs/ /daɪˈrektnəs/ the quality of being simple and clear, so that it is impossible not to understand. The quality of being direct, honest, straightforward. E.g. ‘What's that?’ she asked with her usual directness.He presents his case with refreshing clarity and directness.

eye-opener: an event, experience, etc. that is surprising and shows you something that you did not already know. E.g. Travelling around India was a real eye-opener for me.

candid: saying what you think openly and honestly; not hiding your thoughts. E.g. a candid statement/interview. To be candid, I can't stand her.



have/keep an open mind (about/on something) to be willing to listen to or accept new ideas or suggestions.

-impaired: having the type of physical or mental problem mentioned. E.g. hearing-impaired children. Nowadays we say someone is ‘speech-impaired’, not dumb. Karrie is visually impaired.

due to something/somebody caused by somebody/something; because of somebody/something. E.g. The team's success was largely due to her efforts. Most of the problems were due to human error. The project had to be abandoned due to a lack of government funding. Due to staff shortages, we are unable to offer a full buffet service on this train.

be struck by/with: find particularly interesting, noticeable, or impressive. E.g. I was struck by her youth and enthusiasm. We're not very struck on that new restaurant. Lucy was struck by the ethereal beauty of the scene.

Fiercely:  used for emphasizing what you are saying, especially how strong or severe something is. E.g. Publishing has become a fiercely competitive industry.

impact (of something) (on somebody/something) the powerful effect that something has on somebody/something. E.g. The environmental impact of tourism. Her speech made a profound impact on everyone. Businesses are beginning to feel the full impact of the recession. Social support to cushion the impact of unemployment.

scar a mark that is left on the skin after a wound has healed. E.g. a scar on his cheek. Will the operation leave a scar?

narrow-minded: not willing to listen to new ideas or to the opinions of others. E.g. a narrow-minded attitude.

Ex 3A

KEY

1 preconceptions 



2 challenge the stereotypes
 



3 have second thoughts 



4 keep an open mind 



5 narrow-minded
 



6 eye-opening 



7 perspective 



8 convincing 


Ex 3B

KEY

2 It was an eye-opening experience. It has given me a whole new perspective. 

outlook (on something) the attitude to life and the world of a particular person, group or culture. E.g. He had a practical outlook on life. Most Western societies are liberal in outlook.



3 I had some preconceptions about what he was going to be like. 



4 I don’t find the arguments for nuclear power very convincing. 



5 Losing my job gave me a whole new perspective on what life is like without work.


p 149

Ex 2A

KEY

1 general opinion



2 keep your opinions to yourself



3 your personal opinion
 



4 opinionated /əˈpɪnjəneɪtɪd/ having very strong opinions that you are not willing to change. E.g. I've never met anyone so arrogant and opinionated.



5 difference of opinion. E.g. There is a difference of opinion (= people disagree) as to the merits of the plan.  Despite our many differences of opinion, we remained good friends.



6 opinion is divided. E.g. Opinion is divided(= people disagree) on the issue.



7 a matter of opinion. something not capable of being proven either way. E.g. Which is the better is a matter of opinion(= people have different opinions about it).


8 They are entitled to their own opinion
entitle: to give somebody the right to have or to do something. E.g. Everyone's entitled to their own opinion.

Ex 2B 

KEY

1 If you want my personal  opinion, I think it's a bad idea



2 I found him both opinionated and arrogant.



3 I'm afraid I don't agree. We seem to have a difference of opinion on this one.
 



4 opinion was divided 



5 I don't see how you can say that. It's a matter  of opinion.



6 You can't tell him what to believe in. He's entitled  to his own opinion.



7 I think in this instance it might be better to keep our opinions to ourselves.



8 The general opinion seems to be that it would be a good idea to start now.

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