Sunday, 27 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 27.Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 3A
KEY

Issue: whether we can trust the news we read these days.



Conclusion: that most journalists are honest but a few of them give all journalists a bad name.

Ex 3B

Vocabulary
have an axe to grind: to have private reasons for being involved in something or for arguing for a particular cause. E.g. She had no axe to grind and was only acting out of concern for their safety. These criticisms are commonly voiced by those who have some political axe to grind. University professors don't have an axe to grind. Their business is doing research and teaching. In good faith, tey try and produce things that are of value to society in general.

impartial: not supporting one person or group more than another. Unbiased /ʌnˈbaɪəst/. (opposites: partial. Biased). E.g. to give impartial advice. As chairman, I must remain impartial.

proof: information, documents, etc. that show that something is true. Sp. prueba. E.g. Can you provide any proof of identity? Keep the receipt as proof of purchase.

evidence: the facts, signs or objects that make you believe that something is true.  Sp. evidencia, pruebas. E.g. There is convincing evidence of a link between exposure to sun and skin cancer.

case (for/against something) a set of facts or arguments that support one side in a trial, a discussion, etc. the case for the defence/prosecution. Our lawyer didn't think we had a case(= had enough good arguments to win in a court of law). The case for/against private education. The report makes out a strong case(= gives good arguments) for spending more money on hospitals. You will each be given the chance to state your case. A case can be made for reducing taxes right now.

libel: /ˈlaɪbl/ the act of printing a statement about somebody that is not true and that gives people a bad opinion of them. Sp. difamación, calumnia. E.g. He sued the newspaper for libel. 

name a reputation that somebody/something has; the opinion that people have about somebody/something. E.g. She first made her name as a writer of children's books. He's made quite a name for himself(= become famous). The college has a good name for languages. This kind of behaviour gives students a bad name.

KEY

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Transcript
  
Vocabulary
 as/so far as I am concerned: used to give your personal opinion on something. E.g. As far as I am concerned, you can do what you like. 

have an axe to grind: to have private reasons for being involved in something or for arguing for a particular cause. E.g. She had no axe to grind and was only acting out of concern for their safety. These criticisms are commonly voiced by those who have some political axe to grind. University professors don't have an axe to grind. Their business is doing research and teaching. In good faith, tey try and produce things that are of value to society in general.

impartial: not supporting one person or group more than another. Unbiased /ʌnˈbaɪəst/. (opposites: partial. Biased). E.g. to give impartial advice. As chairman, I must remain impartial.

side with somebody (against somebody/something): to support one person or group in an argument against somebody else. E.g. The kids always sided with their mother against me.

agenda: a plan or aim that is kept secret. E.g. The Minister seems to have her own agenda. There is no secret agenda to increase taxes. I think there are some journalists who cannot be trusted. They have an agenda.
hidden agenda: the secret intention behind what somebody says or does. E.g. There are fears of a hidden agenda behind this new proposal.

tell the truth
Other expressioons with tell:
tell a joke, tell a lie, tell a story, tell the time, tell a secret, tell the difference between, tell apart, tell your fortune, tell the future (= to know what the future will bring)

Say vs. Tell Practice  

Say or Tell Quiz

mouthpiece (of/for somebody) a person, newspaper, etc. that speaks on behalf of another person or group of people. Sp. portavoz. E.g. The newspaper has become the official mouthpiece of the opposition party. The Press Secretary serves as the President's mouthpiece.

rigorous: /ˈrɪɡərəs/ done carefully and with a lot of attention to detail. E.g. a rigorous analysisFew people have gone into the topic in such rigorous detail.The second team adopted a much more rigorous approach to the problem. 

come up with something to find or produce an answer, a sum of money, etc. E.g. She came up with a new idea for increasing sales. How soon can you come up with the money?

nonsense: ideas, statements or beliefs that you think are ridiculous or not true. Rubbish. E.g. Reports that he has resigned are nonsense.You're talking nonsense!

spout: to speak a lot about something; to repeat something in a boring or annoying way. Sp. parlotear. E.g. He's always spouting off about being a vegetarian. What are you spouting on about now? He could spout poetry for hours. She could do nothing but spout insults. The article was full of the usual clichés spouted by fashion editors.

get to the bottom of something to find out the real cause of something, especially something unpleasant. E.g. I won't rest until I've got to the bottom of this! if you ask me: (informal) in my personal opinion. E.g. Their marriage was a mistake, if you ask me.

gather: to believe or understand that something is true because of information or evidence you have. E.g. As far as I can gather, he got involved in a fight.From what I can gather, there's been some kind of problem.

dispassionate: /dɪsˈpæʃənət/ not influenced by emotion. Impartial. E.g. taking a calm, dispassionate view of the situation. A dispassionate observer.

angle: a particular way of presenting or thinking about a situation, problem, etc. E.g. We need a new angle for our next advertising campaign. You can look at the issue from many different angles. The article concentrates on the human angle (= the part that concerns people's emotions) of the story.
err: /ɜː(r)/ to make a mistake. E.g. To err is human…
err on the side of: display more rather than less of (a specified quality) in one’s actions. Sp. pecar. E.g. it is better to err on the side of caution.
spectrum: /ˈspektrəm/  spectra (pl) /ˈspektrə/ a complete or wide range of related qualities, ideas, etc. E.g. a broad spectrum of interests. We shall hear views from across the political spectrum.
after: trying to find or catch somebody/something. E.g. The police are after him. He's after a job at our place. Journalists are still after truth at its heart.
heart: the most important or basic part of something. E.g. Cost-cutting is at the heart of their development plan. These questions go to the heart of the current debate. The heart of the matter/problem. The committee's report went to the heart of the government's dilemma. The distinction between right and wrong lies at the heart of all questions of morality.

surely: used to show that you are almost certain of what you are saying and want other people to agree with youSurely we should do something about it?It's surely only a matter of time before he is found, isn't it?   

worth your/its salt: deserving respect, especially because you do your job well. E.g. Any teacher worth her salt knows that.

case (for/against something) a set of facts or arguments that support one side in a trial, a discussion, etc. the case for the defence/prosecution. Our lawyer didn't think we had a case(= had enough good arguments to win in a court of law). The case for/against private education. The report makes out a strong case(= gives good arguments) for spending more money on hospitals. You will each be given the chance to state your case. A case can be made for reducing taxes right now.

biased: /ˈbaɪəst/ biased (toward(s)/against/in favour of somebody/something) having a tendency to show favour towards or against one group of people or one opinion for personal reasons; making unfair judgements. Partial. (Opposite: unbiased) E.g. biased information/sources/press reports. A biased jury/witness.

libel: /ˈlaɪbl/ (n) the act of printing a statement about somebody that is not true and that gives people a bad opinion of them. Sp. difamación, calumnia. E.g. He sued the newspaper for libel. 

slant (on something/somebody) a way of thinking about something, especially one that shows support for a particular opinion or side in a disagreement. Sp. enfoque. E.g. She put a new slant on the play. Her book looks at his writings from a feminist slant.

somebody can't help (doing) something: used to say that it is impossible to prevent or avoid something. E.g. I always end up having an argument with her, I don't know why, I just can't help it. I can't help thinking he knows more than he has told us.

libel: /ˈlaɪbl/ (v) to publish a written statement about somebody that is not true. Sp. difamar, calumniar, injuriar. E.g. He claimed he had been libelled in an article the magazine had published.




a rotten (or bad) apple: informal a bad or corrupt person in a group, especially one whose behaviour is likely to have a detrimental influence on the others. E.g. looks like we hired ourselves a bad apple

partisan: /ˌpɑːtɪˈzæn/ / ˈpɑːtɪzæn/ showing too much support for one person, group or idea, especially without considering it carefully. One-sided. E.g. Most newspapers are politically partisan.

non-partisan: not supporting the ideas of one particular political party or group of people strongly. E.g. senior civil servants are non-partisan and serve ministers loyally irrespective of politics.

name a reputation that somebody/something has; the opinion that people have about somebody/something. E.g. She first made her name as a writer of children's books. He's made quite a name for himself(= become famous). The college has a good name for languages. This kind of behaviour gives students a bad name.

Ex 4B

KEY

If you want my honest (1) opinion, ...


 
Quite (2) frankly, ...

The reality is/ In reality,...



According (3) to (the statistics/ the facts/ her), ...



From what I can (4) gather, ... 
gather: to believe or understand that something is true because of information or evidence you have. E.g. As far as I can gather, he got involved in a fight.From what I can gather, there's been some kind of problem.


As far as I'm (5) concerned, ... 
as/so far as I am concerned: used to give your personal opinion on something. E.g. As far as I am concerned, you can do what you like. 

To my knowledge, ...
to your knowledge: from the information you have, although you may not know everything. E.g.

‘Are they divorced?’ ‘Not to my knowledge.’She never, to my knowledge, considered resigning.


Look at it this way.



If you (6) ask me, ...
if you ask me: (informal) in my personal opinion. E.g. Their marriage was a mistake, if you ask me.


p 131
Ex 1
KEY

1 a) 



2 c) 



3 i) 



4 h) be (living) on borrowed time: used to convey that someone has survived against expectations, with the implication that they will not do so for much longer. E.g. the government is living on borrowed time.



5 f )  put sth aside: to save something or keep it available to use. E.g. We put some money aside every month for our retirement. I put aside half an hour every day to write my diary.


6 g) 



7 b) 



8 d) 



9 e) 


Ex 5A

KEY

1 In 
erode: /ɪˈrəʊd/ to gradually destroy something or make it weaker over a period of time; to be destroyed or made weaker in this way. E.g. Her confidence has been slowly eroded by repeated failures. In reality, all the recent political and business scandals have eroded people's trust in these professions.


2 gather 



3 concerned 
 


4 knowledge 
 squeaky clean: 1 completely clean, and therefore attractive. E.g. squeaky clean hair. 2 morally correct in every way; that cannot be criticized. E.g. an all-American boy with a squeaky clean image. Politicians who are less than squeaky clean.

a rotten (or bad) apple: informal a bad or corrupt person in a group, especially one whose behaviour is likely to have a detrimental influence on the others. E.g. looks like we hired ourselves a bad apple.




5 ask
 



6 honest 


Ex 6A

KEY

phrases 1, 3 and 4 are used .

Transcript
Extract 1
A: Journalists have an axe to grind.
B: What? That’s debatable.
Extract 2
A: Why would a journalist not want to be partial?
B: Oooh… I don’t know about that.
Extract 3
A: Journalists don’t even know that they’re biased.
B: I find that highly unlikely. 


Ex 6B

KEY

phrase 1

Ex 6C

Transcript
1 I really don’t know about that.
2 I’m really not sure about that.
3 That’s highly debatable.
4 I find that highly unlikely.


Ex 7A

Vocabulary
Call in sick: E.g. Emma has just called in sick (= telephoned to say she will not be coming to work because she is ill).

Off sick: E.g. Peter has been off sick(= away from work because he is ill) for two weeks. 

Ex 7C

Vocabulary 
mess around (British English also mess about)1 to behave in a silly and annoying way, especially instead of doing something useful. Fool around. E.g. Will you stop messing around and get on with some work? I messed around in my first year at college. 2 to spend time doing something for pleasure in a relaxed way. E.g. We spent the day messing around on the river.

memo: /ˈmeməʊ/ an official note from one person to another in the same organization. E.g. to write/send/circulate a memo.

corporate: /ˈkɔːpərət/ connected with a corporation. E.g. corporate finance/planning/strategy. corporate identity(= the image of a company, that all its members share). corporate hospitality/entertaining(= when companies entertain customers to help develop good business relationships) 

clear: to give or get official approval for something to be done. E.g. His appointment had been cleared by the board. I'll have to clear it with the manager. 
 





 










 

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