Had I been more confident, I wouldn’t have listened.
I could have done more interesting things if I’d trusted my instincts.
If I’d known that statistic when I was learning the ropes, I’d be selling insurance today.
But for our trust in each other, we would never have become so successful.
I regret wasting my twenties.
If only I’d known then what I know now.
I wish we hadn’t listened.
1 Had I + past participle, But for + clause
2 More formal
3 Past perfect
Mixed conditional: If I’d known that statistic when I was learning the ropes, I’d be selling insurance today.
Heroics: /həˈrəʊɪks/ actions that are brave and determined. E.g. Thanks to Bateman's heroics in the second half, the team won 2–0.
1 had listened,
3 would have found,
4 had taken over,
would have caused
would be staying
dump: a place where waste or rubbish/garbage is taken and left. E.g. a rubbish dump
would have died
7 had known,
wouldn’t have cooked
8 not pulled,
would have won
1 If we hadn’t gambled on red, we would have won.
2 They wouldn’t have asked him to the party if he wasn’t/weren’t famous.
3 The boys regret borrowing your car.
4 Had she known you were a vegetarian, she wouldn’t have bought fish.
5 If only I hadn’t forgotten my keys, we wouldn’t be locked out!
lock somebody/yourself out (of something): to prevent somebody from entering a place by locking the door. E.g. I'd locked myself out of the house and had to break a window to get in.
6 If I hadn’t dropped out of university, I wouldn’t be working in a boring, lowpaid job.
drop out (of something) to leave school, college, etc. without finishing your studies. She started a degree but dropped out after only a year. Kids who had dropped out of college.
low-paid: earning or providing very little money. E.g. low-paid workers. It is one of the lowest-paid jobs.
7 Ahmed wishes he had spoken to you before you left.
8 But for his injury, we would have won.
KEY and vocabulary
stonecutter: a person who cuts stone from a quarry /ˈkwɒri/ or who shapes and carves it for use.
chip something + adverb/preposition to cut or break small pieces off something with a tool. E.g. It needs skill to chip a block of stone into a recognizable shape.
grant: to agree to give somebody what they ask for, especially formal or legal permission to do something. E.g. My request was granted. I was granted permission to visit the palace.
immovable: /ɪˈmuːvəbl/ that cannot be moved. E.g. an immovable object
moral: /ˈmɒrəl/ a practical lesson that a story, an event or an experience teaches you. E.g. And the moral is that crime doesn't pay.
3 Had I known this, I’d have asked to become a cloud.
4 If I’d been stronger, I could’ve stopped the wind.
5 But for my weakness, I would’ve blown that mountain down.
6 If only I’d been transformed into a mountain, I’d be the strongest of all.
7 If only I’d known this I would’ve remained a stonecutter.
motto: /ˈmɒtəʊ/ a short sentence
or phrase that expresses the aims and beliefs of a person, a group, an
institution, etc. and is used as a rule of behaviour. E.g. The school's motto is: ‘Duty, Honour, Country’. ‘Live and let live.’ That's my motto.