Friday, 25 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 25. Linking Devices.

Connectors and Modifiers

1.            Appearance and reality.
At first sight (a primera vista) but in fact (pero de hecho).
Apparently…but they are really/actually
The fact is that (el hecho es que)
As a matter of fact (de hecho)

2.            Developing an argument (sequence)
First... In the first place… To begin with…To start with… First of all…
Second… Secondly… In the second place… In addition to that… Apart from that… Besides… (además).
Third… Finally… Lastly… Above all… (por encima de todo). In conclusion… All in all…(with everything considered) e.g. All in all, I would say John and I had a very nice trip. All things considered… (considerándolo todo) e.g. All things considered, we didn't do too badly. In the last resort… (como último recurso) e.g. They would in the last resort support their friends whatever they did. In the last resort we shall have to turn to him for help.
If this were not enoughOn top of all thisTo make matters worse.

3.            Giving examples
For example… For instance… A case in point is(un caso que lo explica es)

4.            Contrast
Although… e.g. Although his argument is interesting, it does not convince me.
However,… At the same time… e.g. At the same time, we didn't want to leave our parents.
But… After all… (después de todo) e.g. After all, we didn't really have a choice
In spite of + noun phrase/ -ing/ the fact that…
Despite + noun phrase/ -ing/ the fact that…

5.            Balance
On one hand… (por una parte) On the other hand… (por otra parte)

6.            Cause and effect
Because of… e.g. We were worried in the morning because of the weather, but the event was very lively. Owing to… e.g. I couldn't attend, owing to illness
Caused by… Due to… e.g. The cancellation of the concert was due to the rain.
Consequently... As a result… In consequence…
For this reason… For these reasons… For one reason or another…

7.            Expressing personal opinion
For my part… (por mi parte) e.g. For my part, I do not agree en lo que a mí se refiere / por mi parte, no estoy de acuerdo.
Personally… In my opinion… In my view… As I see it… e.g. As I see it, you have no choice. To my mind… e.g. To my mind, their behaviour is unreasonable. As far as I am concerned… (por lo que a mí se refiere) e.g. As far as I am concerned, that's very sound (reliable and sensible) advice; you should take it.

8.            Modifying what is said or written
To agree
In general… As a rule… (por norma). On the whole… (en conjunto) e.g. On the whole it was a happy marriage. In the main (en lo principal) e.g. It was an excellent conference in the main.
To agree to a certain extent
In a way… (en cierta forma) e.g. You're right, in a way, but we have to consider the price. In a sense… (en algún sentido)e.g. In a sense our schools are the best in the state, but the test scores don't always show that. In some sensee.g. In some sense I agree with you, but not entirely Up to a point (hasta cierto punto). It is interesting up to a point.
To say that you are not very well informed
As far as I know… (por lo que sé). For all I know…e.g. For all I know, she's gone to China. To the best of my knowledge… e.g. To the best of my knowledge, they arrive tomorrow.
To limit the argument
In these circumstances…e.g. In this circumstances, the next suitable day for me to have the personal interview is 30th October. At least… (por lo menos) Things being as they are… (si la situación es esta) e.g. Anyway, things being as they are these days, many states are either broke or getting close to it.

9.            Intensifying the statement
Clearly… Obviously… Of course… Needless to say… As everyone knows…
To point something out
In particular… Especially… Above all… (por encima de todo). Let alone… (aún menos). Not to mention… (por no decir). In other words… (en otras palabras). In any case… (en cualquier caso)

10.         Referring to someone or something
With regard to… (con relación a) e.g I spoke to him with regard to [as regards, in regard to, regarding] his future.. For that matter… (respecto a este asunto) e.g. For that matter I don't care either. As for… (en lo que se refiere a) e.g. As for this chair, there is nothing to do but throw it away.

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