Tuesday, 22 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 22. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 7A



over the hill (informal) (of a person) old and therefore no longer useful or attractive. E.g. Youngsters seem to think you're over the hill at 40!

Ex 7B


2 Metaphors add colour to descriptions and help us to visualise a subject. 

to add/give/lend colour to something (= make it brighter, more interesting, etc.)



3 They help to communicate an idea because they allow us to compare one thing to another.


Ex 8


1 go downhill (go badly)

go downhill: to get worse in quality, health, etc. Deteriorate. E.g. Their marriage went downhill after the first child was born.He's been going slowly downhill since he came out of hospital.




2 at a crossroads  (having to choose one thing or another)

at a/the crossroads: at an important point in somebody's life or development. A point at which a crucial decision must be made which will have far-reaching consequences. E.g. by 1998 I was at the crossroads.




3 you’ll go far (have a great future)

go far (of people): to be very successful in the future. E.g. She is very talented and should go far. 



4 reach the peak (become number one)

peak: the point when somebody/something is best, most successful, strongest, etc. Height. E.g. Traffic reaches its peak between 8 and 9 in the morning. She's at the peak/height of her career. The peaks and troughs of married life.

trough: /trɒf/ a period of time when the level of something is low, especially a time when a business or the economy is not growing. E.g. There have been peaks and troughs in the long-term trend of unemployment.

trough: a long narrow open container for animals to eat or drink from




1 regurgitate /rɪˈɡɜːdʒɪteɪt/ to repeat something you have heard or read without really thinking about it or understanding it. E.g. facts which can then be regurgitated at examinations. Regurgitate the book.

regurgitate something (formal) to bring food that has been swallowed back up into the mouth again. E.g. The bird regurgitates half-digested fish to feed its young.



2 hard to swallow  

swallow: /ˈswɒləʊ/ to accept that something is true; to believe something. E.g. I found her excuse very hard to swallow (difficult to believe).



3 half-baked (idea): badly thought-out. Not well planned or considered. E.g. A half-baked idea/ plan.



4 food for thought: an idea that makes you think seriously and carefully. Something to think about.  E.g. The programme certainly provides plenty of food for thought. Thanks for your comments – they have given us plenty of food for thought.


1 put aside some time 

put/set something aside to keep time, money, land etc for future use or a particular purpose. E.g.  Try to set aside half an hour every day for something you really enjoy doing. We set aside some money for repairs.



2 wasting precious time  (using time badly, not doing anything with your time)

tap: to hit somebody/something quickly and lightly. E.g. Ralph tapped me on the shoulder.



3 can’t afford to spend time (don't have time to do something)



4 living on borrowed time (survive after you would expect to be dead)

be (living) on borrowed time
1 to still be alive after the time when you were expected to die. E.g. He's been living on borrowed time ever since his last heart attack. 
2 to be doing something that other people are likely to soon stop you from doing. E.g. According to the latest opinion polls, the government is living on borrowed time.

Ex 10


2 hard to swallow 

3 put aside some time


4 half-baked 

5 go downhill 

6 living on borrowed time

7 the peak 

8 food for thought 

p 149

Ex 1


1 a flash of inspiration = a clever idea that comes suddenly 

flash of something a particular feeling or idea that suddenly comes into your mind or shows in your face. E.g. a flash of anger/inspiration, etc. ‘Did you really win first prize?’ he said with a flash of genuine admiration.



2 shone = was especially good at something 

Shine: to be very good at something. E.g. He failed to shine academically but he was very good at sports. She has set a shining example of loyal service over four decades.



3 bright = intelligent 

bright: intelligent; quick to learn. E.g. the brightest pupil in the class. Do you have any bright ideas(= clever ideas)?



4 dim = not very intelligent 

dim: not intelligent. E.g. He's very dim. 

dim: (light) not bright. E.g. This light is too dim to read by.



5 constructed = developed 

construct: /kənˈstrʌkt/ to form something by putting different things together. E.g. You must learn how to construct a logical argument. To construct a theory. A well-constructed novel.



6 support = help prove 

support: /səˈpɔːt/ to help to show that something is true. Corroborate /kəˈrɒbəreɪt/. E.g. The witness's story was not supported by the evidence. The results of the experiment supported her theory.



7 falls down = fails 

fall down: to be shown to be not true or not good enough. E.g. And that's where the theory falls down.


8 foundations = basis

foundationa principle, an idea or a fact that something is based on and that it grows from. E.g. Respect and friendship provide a solid foundation for marriage. The rumour is totally without foundation(= not based on any facts). These stories have no foundation(= are not based on any facts). This idea is the foundation of all modern economics.



9 make a killing = a big profit 

make a killing: (informal) to make a lot of money quickly. E.g. She made a killing on the stock market.



10 launched an aggressive campaign = began an intense series of actions

campaign (against/for something) a series of planned activities that are intended to achieve a particular social, commercial or political aim. E.g. to conduct a campaign. An anti-smoking campaign. Today police launched(= began)a campaign to reduce road accidents. An advertising campaign. An election campaign.  

campaign: a series of attacks and battles that are intended to achieve a particular military aim during a war. E.g. the North African campaign. Air battles had dominated the campaign. A bombing campaign. 




11 targeting = aimed at 

target somebody to try to have an effect on a particular group of people. E.g. The campaign is clearly targeted at the young. A new magazine that targets single men.




12 join forces = merge together

join/combine forces (with somebody) to work together in order to achieve a shared aim. E.g. The two firms joined forces to win the contract.

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