Friday, 25 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 25. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 7B
homeless: (adj) having no home. E.g. a homeless person.

the homeless: [plural] people who have no home. E.g. helping the homeless. 

live/sleep rough
(British English) to live or sleep outdoors, usually because you have no home and no money. E.g. young people sleeping rough on the streets.

beggar: /ˈbeɡə(r)/ a person who lives by asking people for money or food. E.g. beggars sleeping on the pavement.

tramp: (also hobo /ˈhəʊbəʊ/ (pl. hobos) ) [countable] a person with no home or job who travels from place to place, usually asking people in the street for food or money. E.g. An old tramp was sitting on a bench. 

squatter: /ˈskwɒtə(r)/ a person who is living in a building or on land without permission and without paying rent. E.g. The squatters were evicted by bailiffs on Tuesday.

attempt: /əˈtempt/ an act of trying to do something, especially something difficult, often with no success. E.g. attempt to do something Two factories were closed in an attempt to cut costs. They made no attempt to escape.

clear to remove something that is not wanted or needed from a place. E.g.  I had cleared my desk before I left.

host: /həʊst/ to organize an event to which others are invited and make all the arrangements for them. E.g. South Africa hosted the World Cup finals.

misuse: /ˌmɪsˈjuːs/ the act of using something in a dishonest way or for the wrong purpose. Abuse. E.g. alcohol/drug misuse. The misuse of power/authority. A misuse of public funds.

charitable: /ˈtʃærətəbl/ connected with a charity or charities. E.g. a charitable institution/ foundation/ trust. A charitable donation/ gift.

approach /əˈprəʊtʃ/ a way of dealing with somebody/something; a way of doing or thinking about something such as a problem or a task. E.g. She took the wrong approach in her dealings with them.
The school has decided to adopt a different approach to discipline.

contributing: E.g. Human error may have been a contributing factor (one of the causes).

struggle: to try very hard to do something when it is difficult or when there are a lot of problems. E.g. They struggled just to pay their bills. A country struggling for independence.

keep up with: to continue to pay or do something regularly. E.g. If you do not keep up with the payments you could lose your home.

ensure: /ɪnˈʃʊə(r)/ to make sure that something happens or is definite. E.g. The book ensured his success. Victory ensured them a place in the final. Please ensure (that) all lights are switched off.

focus: /ˈfəʊkəs/ E.g. The discussion focused on three main problems.

Ex 8


It follows the advice: 
1 It has an introductory paragraph. 
2 It uses paragraphs to explain the for and against arguments. 
3 It includes linkers. 
4 It has a concluding paragraph which includes the writer’s opinion.

Ex 9A


1.  Introduce additional information (meaning "and")

What is more, another (problem/ issue/ point, etc), additionally, in addition to this, furthermore, Likewise.


Bilingual children do better in IQ tests than children who speak only one language. In addition/What is more, they seem to find it easier to learn third or even fourth languages.

Learning another language not only improves children's job prospects in later life, but also boosts their self-esteem.

Teaching children a second language improves their job prospects in later life.Other benefits include increased self-esteem and greater tolerance of other cultures.

Additionally, the bus service will run on Sundays, every two hours.

Another/One further/One additional reason for encouraging bilingual education is that it boosts children's self-esteem. 

Studies suggest that bilingual children find it easier to learn additional languages. There is, moreover, increasing evidence that bilingual children perform better across a range of school subjects, not just foreign languages. 

His claim that children find bilingual education confusing is based on very little evidence.Moreover, the evidence he does provide is seriously flawed (with mistakes). 

Research has shown that first-language development is not impeded by exposure to a second language.Furthermore, there is no evidence to support the claim that children find bilingual education confusing.

The banks advise against sending cash. Likewise, sending British cheques may cause problems 

2. Indicate a contrast with what has come before (meaning "but") 

in contrast, on the contrary, conversely /ˈkɒnvɜːsli/, however, On the other hand, nevertheless.


You can add the fluid to the powder, or, conversely, the powder to the fluid.

Women suffering from anorexia are still convinced that their thin, frail bodies are fat and unsightly. Conversely, some people who are a great deal heavier than they should be can persuade themselves that they are ‘just right’. 

Politicians have promised to improve road safety. So far, however, little has been achieved.

Despite clear evidence from road safety studies, no new measures have been introduced. 

Politicians have promised to improve road safety. In spite of this/Despite this, little has been achieved so far. 

Although /ɔːlˈðəʊ/ politicians have promised to improve road safety, little has been achieved so far.

Some politicians claim that the new transport policy has been a success.In fact, it has been a total disaster.

Government campaigns have had a measure of success, but the fact remains that large numbers of accidents are still caused by careless drivers.

While the film is undoubtedly too long, it is nevertheless an intriguing piece of cinema.

It can be argued that the movie is too long. It is nonetheless an intriguing piece of cinema. 

The film is undoubtedly too long. Still, it is an intriguing piece of cinema.

Of course, huge chunks of the book have been sacrificed in order to make a two-hour movie, but it is nevertheless a successful piece of storytelling.

Critics are wrong to argue that the film's plot is too complicated. Certainly there are a couple of major twists, but audiences will have no difficulty following them. 

It is true that you cannot make a good movie without a good script, but it is equally true that a talented director can make a good script into an excellent film. 

It remains to be seen whether these two movies herald (are a sign) a new era of westerns, but there is no doubt that they represent welcome additions to the genre. 

3. Follow a logical argument (meaning "therefore")

Thus, hence, accordingly, as a result,  Consequently, so, for this reason.

We do not own the building. Thus, it would be impossible for us to make any major changes to it.

Eating habits formed in childhood tend to continue into adult life.Thus, the best way to prevent heart disease among adults is to encourage healthy eating from an early age.

Eating habits formed in childhood tend to continue into adult life, hence the importance of encouraging healthy eating from an early age. 

The cost of materials rose sharply last year. Accordingly (therefore), we were forced to increase our prices. 

Many children spend their free time watching TV instead of playing outside. As a result, more and more of them are becoming overweight.

Many parents today do not have time to cook healthy meals for their children.Consequently/As a consequence, many children grow up eating too much junk food.
Today's children eat more junk food and get less exercise than previous generations of children. It is not surprising, therefore, that rates of childhood obesity are on the increase.

Children who grow up on a diet of junk food find it difficult to change this habit later in life. It is essential, therefore, that parents encourage healthy eating from an early age.

Children who grow up on a diet of junk food find it difficult to change this habit later in life. For this reason, /This is why it is essential that children eat healthily from an early age. 

One consequence of changes in diet over recent years has been a dramatic increase in cases of childhood obesity.

Last year junk food was banned in schools.The effect of this has been to create a black market in the playground, with pupils bringing sweets from home to sell to other pupils. 

4. prove your point. 

evidently, obviously, indeed, to conclude, In fact, In conclusion. 

Evidently: according to what people say. E.g. Evidently, she had nothing to do with the whole affair.
Evidently, these valleys were formed by glacial erosion.

Obviously: used when giving information that you expect other people to know already or agree with. E.g. Obviously, we don't want to spend too much money. 

Indeed: used to add information to a statement. E.g. I don't mind at all. Indeed, I would be delighted to help. 

To conclude, I would actually like to say.

in (actual) fact: 

1 used to give extra details about something that has just been mentioned. E.g. I used to live in France; in fact, not far from where you're going.  I haven't seen him for years. In fact, I can't even remember what he looks like.

2 used to emphasize a statement, especially one that is the opposite of what has just been mentioned. E.g. I thought the work would be difficult. In actual fact, it's very easy.

In conclusion, the study has provided useful insights into the issues relating to people's perception of crime.

Based on this study, it can be concluded that the introduction of new street lighting did not reduce reported crime. 

To sum up, no evidence can be found to support the view that improved street lighting reduces reported crime. 

The available evidence clearly leads to the conclusion that the media do have an influence on the public perception of crime. 

The main conclusion to be drawn from this study is that public perception of crime is significantly influenced by crime news reporting.

This study has shown that people's fear of crime is out of all proportion to crime itself.

Fear of crime is out of all proportion to the actual level of crime, and the reasons for this can be summarized as follows. First… 

Overall/In general, women are more likely than men to feel insecure walking alone after dark.

Ex 9B

1 in conclusion, 


2 On the contrary

3 hence 

4 thus 

5 To conclude 

6 In addition to this, 



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