1 Reggae has its roots in Jamaica.
2 The Mohican haircut, in the UK, has its origins in the punk era.
Mohican /məʊˈhiːkən/ (also Mohawk /ˈməʊhɔːk/) a way of cutting the hair in which the
head is shaved except for a strip of hair in the middle that is
sometimes made to stick up. E.g. Mohawk hairstyles.
3 Technology has given rise to new types of crime, such as hacking.
4 Some say football can be traced back to China.
5 Global warming has caused/is the cause of many recent environmental disasters.
6 Because of better healthcare and diet, plus fewer babies per family, the population is ageing.
7 The rising number of female world leaders stems from the women's liberation movement.
8 The growth in online publishing has led to new laws.
necessitate: /nəˈsesɪteɪt/ to make something necessary. E.g. necessitate something. Recent financial scandals have necessitated changes in parliamentary procedures. Necessitate doing something Increased traffic necessitated widening the road. Necessitate somebody/something doing something His new job necessitated him/his getting up at six.
9 It's thought that chess originated in India over a thousand years ago.
10 Medical procedures /prəˈsiːdʒəz/ for disfigured /dɪsˈfɪɡəd/ soldiers /ˈsəʊldʒəz/ resulted in the development of cosmetic surgery.
11 The recent popularity of tattoos /təˈtuːz/ can be attributed to celebrities who have them.
12 Globalisation has brought about big changes to the way businesses are run.
We usually use these expressions at the end of a long 'turn' or the end of a section of speech. Their purpose is to summarise what has been said.
long turn: long explanation, story, description,...
Summing up an argument
In conclusion, the study has provided useful insights into the issues relating to people's perception of crime.
Based on this study, it can be concluded that the introduction of new street lighting did not reduce reported crime.
To sum up, no evidence can be found to support the view that improved street lighting reduces reported crime.
The available evidence clearly leads to the conclusion that the media do have an influence on the public perception of crime.
The main conclusion to be drawn from this study is that public perception of crime is significantly influenced by crime news reporting.
This study has shown that people's fear of crime is out of all proportion to crime itself.
Fear of crime is out of all proportion to the actual level of crime, and the reasons for this can be summarized as follows. First…
Overall/In general, women are more likely than men to feel insecure walking alone after dark.
Basically, their goal is to promote healthier eating habits.
So what I'm really saying is that there isn't one diet out there that is the best. In essence, you have to do what works for you.
All in all: on the whole. E.g. all in all it’s been a good year.
Basically, . . .
So what I'm really saying is, ...
The ebb: /eb/ the period of time when the sea flows away from the land. E.g. the ebb tide.
at a low ebb: in a poor state; worse than usual. E.g. Morale among teachers is at a low ebb.
soar: if the value, amount or level of something soars, it rises very quickly. E.g. Unemployment has soared to 18%.
jump: to rise suddenly by a large amount. Leap. E.g. jump by… Prices jumped by 60% last year. Jump (from…) (to…) Sales jumped from $2.7 billion to $3.5 billion.
run out (of something) to use up or finish a supply of something. E.g. We ran out of fuel. Could I have a cigarette? I seem to have run out.
4 and 5 are in a formal context.
In each case, the 'a' sound in 'ally' becomes 'swallowed' e.g. basically becomes /ˈbeɪsɪkli/, dramatically /drəˈmætɪkli/, enthusiastically /ɪnˌθjuːziˈæstɪkli/, logically /ˈlɒdʒɪkli/.