Friday, 13 December 2013

Speakout Advanced p 74. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 1A
out of date: old-fashioned or without the most recent information and therefore no longer useful. E.g These figures are very out of date. Suddenly she felt old and out of date. An out-of-date map. Out-of-date technology.

Ex 1B
KEY
Main idea: that the best way to explain a trend is as something that spreads like an epidemic or virus.
 
strike/touch a chord (with somebody) to say or do something that makes people feel sympathy or enthusiasm. E.g. The speaker had obviously struck a chord with his audience.

stagnated stopped growing. To stop developing or making progress. E.g. Profits have stagnated. I feel I'm stagnating in this job. Businesses must adapt to change or stagnate.

Ex 2A
KEY
1 off 
Trends take off


2 appeal 
It has lost its appeal


3 imagination 
They capture the imagination


4 chord 
It strikes a chord


5 thing (can also say craze
It becomes the latest thing/ craze


6 trend (can also say fad
It's just a passing trend/ fad


7 risen
The number has risen



8 mouth 
It spreads by word of mouth

Ex 3A
KEY

1 wearing trousers below the hip, and showing underwear; reality TV shows 



2 in US prisons, because belts weren't allowed; early programmes in the 1970s and 80s
 



3 through rappers such as Ice T; through programmes such as Big Brother and Pop Idol 

Ex 3B
trace something (back) (to something) to find the origin or cause of something. E.g. She could trace her family tree back to the 16th century. The leak was eventually traced to a broken seal. The police traced the call (= used special electronic equipment to find out who made the telephone call) to her ex-husband's number.

attribute something to something to say or believe that something is the result of a particular thing. E.g. She attributes her success to hard work and a little luck.
attribute something to somebody to say or believe that somebody is responsible for doing something, especially for saying, writing or painting something. E.g. This play is usually attributed to Shakespeare.
 
stem from something (not used in the progressive tenses) to be the result of something. E.g. Most people's insecurities stem from something that happened in their childhood.

lead to something to have something as a result. E.g. Eating too much sugar can lead to health problems. A reward was offered for information leading to an arrest.

result in something to make something happen. Lead to. E.g. The cyclone has resulted in many thousands of deaths. Result in somebody/something doing something these policies resulted in many elderly people suffering hardship.

give rise to something: (formal) to cause something to happen or exist. E.g. The novel's success gave rise to a number of sequels.
 
bring something about: to make something happen. Cause. E.g. What brought about the change in his attitude?

Ex 3C
KEY
1 it all started; has its roots in; it led to 


2 It all started; it originated from; has caused; Because of this; resulted in

Vocabulary
inmate: one of the people living in an institution such as a prison or a mental hospital. E.g. The jail has 500 inmates. He was attacked by a fellow inmate.

baggy loose-fitting. E.g. a baggy T-shirt

issue: the act of supplying or making available things for people to buy or use. E.g. I bought a set of the new stamps on the date of issue. The issue of blankets to the refugees. The issue of a joint statement by the French and German foreign ministers. A pair of prison issue trousers.
  
mainstream accepted by or involving most people in society. E.g. mainstream education.
 
out of the blue unexpectedly; without warning. E.g. The decision came out of the blue.

shift (in something) a change in position or direction. E.g. a dramatic shift in public opinion. A shift of emphasis.
 
tire of something/somebody: to become bored with something/ somebody or begin to enjoy it/ them less. E.g. They soon tired of the beach and went for a walk. She was sure that he would soon tire of her. There are plenty of restaurants for those who tire of shopping.

p 139
Ex 1
KEY
1 rise
give rise to something: (formal) to cause something to happen or exist. E.g. The novel's success gave rise to a number of sequels.

retronym: /ˈretrəʊnɪm/ a new name that is given to something that has existed for a long time, in order to distinguish it from a more modern development. E.g. The list of retronyms includes acoustic guitar, manual typewriter, silent movie and landline phone.



2 back 
trace something (back) (to something) to find the origin or cause of something. E.g. She could trace her family tree back to the 16th century. The leak was eventually traced to a broken seal. The police traced the call (= used special electronic equipment to find out who made the telephone call) to her ex-husband's number.



3 led 
lead to something to have something as a result. E.g. Eating too much sugar can lead to health problems. A reward was offered for information leading to an arrest.


4 resulted
result in something to make something happen. Lead to. E.g. The cyclone has resulted in many thousands of deaths. Result in somebody/something doing something these policies resulted in many elderly people suffering hardship.



5 stem
stem from something (not used in the progressive tenses) to be the result of something. E.g. Most people's insecurities stem from something that happened in their childhood.



6 about 
bring something about: to make something happen. Cause. E.g. What brought about the change in his attitude?

proliferation: /prəˌlɪfəˈreɪʃn/ the sudden increase in the number or amount of something; a large number of a particular thing. E.g. attempts to prevent cancer cell proliferation. A proliferation of personal computers.



7 in 
landline: a telephone connection that uses wires carried on poles or under the ground, in contrast to a mobile/cell phone. E.g. I'll call you later on the landline.


8 attributed
attribute something to something to say or believe that something is the result of a particular thing. E.g. She attributes her success to hard work and a little luck.
attribute something to somebody to say or believe that somebody is responsible for doing something, especially for saying, writing or painting something. E.g. This play is usually attributed to Shakespeare.

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