Saturday, 21 December 2013

Speakout Advanced p 82. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 7A
strand somebody to leave somebody in a place from which they have no way of leaving. E.g. The strike left hundreds of tourists stranded at the airport. 

alarm: a loud noise or a signal that warns people of danger or of a problem. She decided to sound the alarm (= warn people that the situation was dangerous). I hammered on all the doors to raise the alarm (warn people that something bad is happening). By the time the alarm was raised the intruders had escaped. 

make a break for something/for it to run towards something in order to try and escape. E.g. He suddenly leapt up and made a break for the door. They decided to make a break for it (= to try and escape) that night.  He made a break for the exit.

p 159
Admiralty: /ˈædmərəlti/

off: away from 

Papua New Guinea: /ˈpæpuə njuː ˈɡɪni/ 



en route /ˌɒn ˈruːt/ on the way; while travelling from/ to a particular place. E.g. We stopped for a picnic en route. En route (from…) (to…) The bus broke down en route from Boston to New York. En route (for…) a plane en route for Heathrow.

penknife /ˈpennaɪf/ a small knife with one or more blades that fold down into the handle.


alcohol: /ˈælkəhɒl/

water-resistant: that does not let water through easily. E.g. a water-resistant jacket. Water-resistant tape.



hatch something (up) to create a plan or an idea, especially in secret. E.g. Have you been hatching up a deal with her? He hatched a plan with Matt to sell things on the Internet.

raft: /rɑːft/  a flat structure made of pieces of wood tied together and used as a boat or floating platform.


run out (of something): to use up or finish a supply of something. E.g. We ran out of fuel. Could I have a cigarette? I seem to have run out.

stash something + adverb/preposition (informal) to store something in a safe or secret place. E.g. She has a fortune stashed away in various bank accounts. The gun was stashed under the bed.

shine something (+ adverb/preposition) to aim or point the light of a lamp, etc. in a particular direction. E.g. He shone the flashlight around the cellar. Shine a mirror towards the boats.

Ex 8A

KEY

verbs                 nouns                  adjectives                adverbs


Ex 8B
Underlined suffixes:

emigrate /ˈemɪɡreɪt/ to leave your own country to go and live permanently in another country. E.g. The family left Czechoslovakia in 1968 and emigrated to America.

emigration /ˌemɪˈɡreɪʃn/ e.g. the mass emigration of Jews from Eastern Europe.

emigrant /ˈemɪɡrənt/ a person who leaves their country to live in another. E.g. emigrant workers. Emigrants to Canada.

deceive:/dɪˈsiːv/ to make somebody believe something that is not true. E.g. deceive somebody Her husband had been deceiving her for years. deceive somebody into doing something She deceived him into handing over all his savings.

deception /dɪˈsepʃn/ the act of deliberately making somebody believe something that is not true (= of deceiving them). E.g. a drama full of lies and deception. He was accused of obtaining property by deception.

deceptive: /dɪˈseptɪv/ likely to make you believe something that is not true. Misleading. E.g.
a deceptive advertisement. Appearances can often be deceptive (= things are not always what they seem to be). The deceptive simplicity of her writing style (= it seems simple but is not really).

deceptively /dɪˈseptɪvli/ e.g. a deceptively simple idea.

pretend: /prɪˈtend/ to behave in a particular way, in order to make other people believe something that is not true. E.g. I'm tired of having to pretend all the time. Pretend (to somebody) (that…) He pretended to his family that everything was fine. We pretended (that) nothing had happened. She pretended (that) she was his niece. Pretend to do something I pretended to be asleep. He pretended not to notice. She didn't love him, though she pretended to.

pretence /prɪˈtens/ the act of behaving in a particular way, in order to make other people believe something that is not true. E.g. Their friendliness was only pretence. Pretence of doing something By the end of the evening she had abandoned all pretence of being interested. Pretence of something He made no pretence of great musical knowledge. Pretence that… She was unable to keep up the pretence that she loved him.

pretend: /prɪˈtend/ (often used by children) not real, imaginary. E.g. pretend cakes. The children poured out pretend tea for the dolls.

suspect/səˈspekt/ to have an idea that something is probably true or likely to happen, especially something bad, but without having definite proof. E.g. As I had suspected all along, he was not a real policeman. I began to suspect (that) they were trying to get rid of me.  It was suspected that the drugs had been brought into the country by boat.

suspicion: /səˈspɪʃn/ a feeling that somebody has done something wrong, illegal or dishonest, even though you have no proof. E.g. They drove away slowly to avoid arousing suspicion. He was arrested on suspicion of murder.

suspicious:  /səˈspɪʃəs/ suspicious (of/about somebody/something) feeling that somebody has done something wrong, illegal or dishonest, without having any proof. E.g. They became suspicious of his behaviour and contacted the police.

suspiciously: /səˈspɪʃəsli/ in a way that shows you think somebody has done something wrong, illegal or dishonest. E.g. The man looked at her suspiciously.


Ex 9A
KEY

1 emigrate 



2 pretence



3 recollection



4 suspicious



5 massive



6 realise



7 extensively
to little/no avail (formal) /əˈveɪl/ with little or no success. E.g. The doctors tried everything to keep him alive but to no avail.



8 supposedly 

Ex 9B
KEY
1 emigrate (v)



2 pretence (N)



3 recollection (N)



4 suspicious (adj)



5 massive (adj)



6 realise (v)



7 extensively (adv)
to little/no avail (formal) /əˈveɪl/ with little or no success. E.g. The doctors tried everything to keep him alive but to no avail.



8 supposedly (adv)


Ex 10A
KEY
1 emigrate

motivate:  /ˈməʊtɪveɪt/ E.g. She's very good at motivating her students.

hesitate:  /ˈhezɪteɪt/ to be slow to speak or act because you feel uncertain or nervous. E.g. She hesitated before replying.

renovate:  /ˈrenəveɪt/ to repair and paint an old building, a piece of furniture, etc. so that it is in good condition again. E.g. the old school has been tastefully renovated as a private house.



2 realise

prioritise: /praɪˈɒrətaɪz/  
1 prioritize (something) to put tasks, problems, etc. in order of importance, so that you can deal with the most important first. E.g. You should make a list of all the jobs you have to do and prioritize them.
2 prioritize something (formal) to treat something as being more important than other things. E.g. The organization was formed to prioritize the needs of older people.


glorify something: /ˈɡlɔːrɪfaɪ/ (often disapproving) to make something seem better or more important than it really is. E.g. He denies that the movie glorifies violence.

electrify: /ɪˈlektrɪfaɪ/
1 [usually passive] electrify something to make something work by using electricity; to pass an electrical current through something. E.g. The railway line was electrified in the 1950s. He had all the fences around his home electrified. 
2 electrify somebody to make somebody feel very excited and enthusiastic about something. E.g. Her performance electrified the audience.

exemplify:  /ɪɡˈzemplɪfaɪ/
1 exemplify something to be a typical example of something. E.g. Her early work is exemplified in her book, ‘A Study of Children's Minds’. His food exemplifies Italian cooking at its best.
2 exemplify something to give an example in order to make something clearer. Illustrate. E.g. She exemplified each of the points she was making with an amusing anecdote. 



3 recollection

exhaustion: /ɪɡˈzɔːstʃən/
1 the state of being very tired. E.g. suffering from physical/ mental/ nervous exhaustion. Her face was grey with exhaustion. 
2 (formal) the act of using something until it is completely finished. E.g. the exhaustion of natural resources.

immediacy: /ɪˈmiːdiəsi/
1 the quality in something that makes it seem as if it is happening now, close to you and is therefore important, urgent, etc. E.g. the immediacy of threat. Email lacks the immediacy of online chat. 
2 lack of delay; speed. E.g. Our aim is immediacy of response to emergency calls. 

accuracy: /ˈækjərəsi/ the state of being exact or correct; the ability to do something skilfully without making mistakes. E.g. They questioned the accuracy of the information in the file. Candidates are judged on technical accuracy as well as artistic expression. She hits the ball with great accuracy.

tendency: /ˈtendənsi/  
1 if somebody/something has a particular tendency, they are likely to behave or act in a particular way. E.g. I have a tendency to talk too much when I'm nervous. There is a tendency for this disease to run in families. This material has a tendency to shrink when washed. For students, there is a tendency to socialize in the evenings.
2 tendency (for somebody/something) (to do something)| tendency (to/towards something) a new custom that is starting to develop. E.g. There is a growing tendency among employers to hire casual staff (not permanent).

clarity: /ˈklærəti/  
1 the quality of being expressed clearly. E.g. a lack of clarity in the law. The brilliant clarity of his argument could not be faulted (criticised). 
2 the ability to think about or understand something clearly. E.g. clarity of thought/ purpose/ vision.
3 if a picture, substance or sound has clarity, you can see or hear it very clearly, or see through it easily. E.g. the clarity of sound on a CD.

embarrassment: /ɪmˈbærəsmənt/ shy, awkward or guilty feelings; a feeling of being embarrassed /ɪmˈbærəst/. E.g. I nearly died of embarrassment when he said that. I'm glad you offered—it saved me the embarrassment of having to ask. Much to her embarrassment she realized that everybody had been listening to her singing.

enjoyment: /ɪnˈdʒɔɪmənt/ the pleasure that you get from something. E.g. He spoiled my enjoyment of the game by talking all through it. The rules are there to ensure everyone's safety and enjoyment. Children seem to have lost their enjoyment in reading. I get a lot of enjoyment from my grandchildren. Do you get any enjoyment out of this type of work?

harassment:  /ˈhærəsmənt/ /həˈræsmənt/ aggressive pressure or intimidation. E.g.racial/ sexual harassment We encourage anyone who has been the subject of racial harassment to report it.

-ness: /nəs/ /nɪs/ E.g. tiredness depression and tiredness caused by overwork. Filling up on fatty foods like meat and cheese added to feelings of tiredness. As I already said, side effects I have experienced include headaches and constant tiredness.

attendant /əˈtendənt/ a person whose job is to serve or help people in a public place. E.g. a cloakroom/ parking/ museum attendant. A flight attendant.

disinfectant:  /ˌdɪsɪnˈfektənt/ E.g. a strong smell of disinfectant.



4 pretence /prɪˈtens/

clearance: /ˈklɪərəns/ the removal of things that are not wanted. E.g. landscape gardeners have begun a clearance of the overgrown ground to make way for a new park. A clearance sale (= in a shop/ store, when goods are sold cheaply to get rid of them quickly).

reappearance: /ˌriːəˈpɪərəns/ E.g. His reappearance for the next campaign would be welcome.

dominant:  /ˈdɒmɪnənt/  more important, powerful or noticeable than other things. E.g. The firm has achieved a dominant position in the world market. The dominant feature of the room was the large fireplace. The issue of climate change was the dominant theme of the conference. The company cannot preserve its dominant position in the market.  

redundant: /rɪˈdʌndənt/
1 without a job because there is no more work available for you in a company. E.g. to be made redundant from your job. Redundant employees
2 not needed or useful. E.g. The picture has too much redundant detail.


 
5 suspicious 


 scandalous: /ˈskændələs/ shocking and unacceptable. E.g. a scandalous waste of money. The decision is nothing short of (equal to) scandalous. It is scandalous that he has not been punished.

rebellious: /rɪˈbeljəs/ unwilling to obey rules or accept normal standards of behaviour, dress, etc. E.g. rebellious teenagers. He has always had a rebellious streak (characteristic Sp. vena).

capable: /ˈkeɪpəbl/ You are capable of better work than this. He's quite capable of lying to get out of trouble. I'm perfectly capable of doing it myself, thank you.

edible: /ˈedəbl/ /-ɪb-/ fit or suitable to be eaten; not poisonous. E.g. The food at the hotel was barely edible. Edible fungi/ snails/ flowers.

visible: /ˈvɪzəbl/ E.g. The house is clearly visible from the beach. Most stars are not visible to the naked eye. The moon was just visible between the clouds.



6 massive 

persuasive: /pəˈsweɪsɪv/ able to persuade somebody to do or believe something. E.g. persuasive arguments. He can be very persuasive. The persuasive power of advertising.

elusive: /iˈluːsɪv/ difficult to find, define, or achieve. E.g. Eric, as elusive as ever, was nowhere to be found. The elusive concept of ‘literature’. A solution to the problem of toxic waste is proving elusive.

evasive:  /ɪˈveɪsɪv/ not willing to give clear answers to a question. E.g. evasive answers/ comments/ replies. Tessa was evasive about why she had not been at home that night. John, normally so honest, was now being evasive in the extreme.

resourceful:  /rɪˈsɔːsfl/ /rɪˈzɔːsfl/ good at finding ways of doing things and solving problems, etc. Sp.
These women were strong, resourceful and courageous /kəˈreɪdʒəs/. She maintained her reputation for being a resourceful problem-solver. You will become stronger and more resourceful in the face of adversity.

 


7 extensively 
extensively  /ɪkˈstensɪvli/ covering a large area; great in amount. E.g. a spice used extensively in Eastern cooking. She has travelled extensively.


8 supposedly  /səˈpəʊzɪdli/ according to what is generally thought or believed but not known for certain. E.g. The novel is supposedly based on a true story. A poem supposedly written by Shakespeare. Police have found the supposedly stolen car.



Speakout tip 
KEY


hopeless: if something is hopeless, there is no hope that it will get better or succeed. E.g. a hopeless situation. It's hopeless trying to convince her. Most of the students are making good progress, but Michael is a hopeless case. He felt that his life was a hopeless mess.

childproof: /ˈtʃaɪldpruːf/ designed so that young children cannot open, use, or damage it. E.g. childproof containers for medicines.

soundproof: made so that sound cannot pass through it or into it. E.g. a soundproof room.

-like: similar to

lookalike: /ˈlʊkəlaɪk/ (often used after a person's name) a person who looks very similar to the person mentioned. E.g. an Elvis lookalike.

-worthy: deserving of/suitable for.

trustworthy: /ˈtrʌstwɜːði/ that you can rely on to be good, honest, sincere, etc. E.g. leave a spare key with a trustworthy neighbour.

-ible/-able: has this ability/ feature.

incomprehensible: /ɪnˌkɒmprɪˈhensəbl/ impossible to understand. E.g. Some application forms can be incomprehensible to ordinary people. He found his son's actions totally incomprehensible.

habitable: /ˈhæbɪtəbl/ suitable for people to live in. E.g. The house should be habitable by the new year.


p 154
Ex 1A
KEY
verbs: 
fabricate /ˈfæbrɪkeɪt/  
1 to invent false information in order to trick people. E.g. The evidence was totally fabricated. The prisoner claimed the police had fabricated his confession.
2 fabricate something (technical) to make or produce goods, equipment, etc. from various different materials. Manufacture. E.g. you will have to fabricate an exhaust system.



glorify 
glorify something: /ˈɡlɔːrɪfaɪ/ (often disapproving) to make something seem better or more important than it really is. E.g. He denies that the movie glorifies violence.


nouns:
censorship /
ˈsensəʃɪp/ E.g. press censorship. The decree imposed strict censorship of the media.



nationalist
E.g. Scottish nationalists


governor /ˈɡʌvənə(r)/ 
1 a person who is chosen to be in charge of the government of a state in the US. E.g. the governor of Arizona. 
2 a member of a group of people who are responsible for controlling an institution such as a school, a college or a hospital. E.g. A school governor. The board of governors of the college.  
3 a person who is in charge of an institution. E.g. A prison governor. The governor of the Bank of England.



senility /səˈnɪləti/ The condition of being senile /ˈsiːnaɪl/ (confused and unable to remember things, because you are old) E.g. an old man on the verge of senility. The onset (beginning) of senility.



likelihood
E.g. There is very little likelihood of that happening. In all likelihood(= very probably) the meeting will be cancelled. The likelihood is that (= it is likely that) unemployment figures will continue to fall. This reduces the likelihood that the treatment will be successful.



kindliness /ˈkaɪndlinəs/ The quality of being kind, warm-hearted, or gentle; kindness. E.g.
Her friendliness, humble kindliness and her generous disposition won her the hearts of many people who came to know and love her personality.



repetition /ˌrepəˈtɪʃn/ E.g. learning by repetition. In her work we find the constant repetition of the same themes.



sarcasm /ˈsɑːkæzəm/ a way of using words that are the opposite of what you mean in order to be unpleasant to somebody or to make fun of them. E.g. ‘That will be useful,’ she snapped (spoke impatiently) with heavy sarcasm (= she really thought it would not be useful at all). A hint/ touch/ trace of sarcasm in his voice.



expertise /ˌekspɜːˈtiːz/ expert knowledge or skill in a particular subject, activity or job. E.g.
professional/ scientific/ technical, etc. expertise. We have the expertise to help you run your business. It is difficult to find staff with the level of expertise required for this job. Expertise in something/in doing something They have considerable expertise in dealing with oil spills.


remission /rɪˈmɪʃn/
1 a period during which a serious illness improves for a time and the patient seems to get better. E.g. The patient has been in remission for the past six months. The symptoms reappeared after only a short remission. A period of remission
 2 (British English) a reduction in the amount of time somebody spends in prison, especially because they have behaved well. E.g. With remission for good behaviour, he could be out by the end of the year. She has been granted a remission of sentence. He lost two months' remission after he attacked another prisoner.
 3 (formal) an act of reducing or cancelling the amount of money that somebody has to pay. E.g. New businesses may qualify for tax remission. There is a partial remission of fees for overseas students.


 


adjectives: 
exorbitant /ɪɡˈzɔːbɪtənt/ (of a price) much too high. E.g. exorbitant costs/ fares/ fees/ prices/ rents. It's a good hotel but the prices are exorbitant.



nationalist
E.g. nationalist sentiments


responsive /rɪˈspɒnsɪv/
1 [not usually before noun] responsive (to somebody/something) reacting quickly and in a positive way. E.g. Firms have to be responsive to consumer demand. A flu virus that is not responsive to treatment
2 responsive (to somebody/something) reacting with interest or enthusiasm. Receptive. E.g. The club is responsive to new ideas. A responsive and enthusiastic audience.



personable /ˈpɜːsənəbl/ (of a person) attractive to other people because of having a pleasant appearance and character. Sp. agradable. E.g. The sales assistant was a very personable young man.



identical /aɪˈdentɪkl/ E.g. a row of identical houses. The two pictures are similar, although not identical. Her dress is almost identical to mine.



troublesome /ˈtrʌblsəm/ causing trouble, pain, etc. over a long period of time. E.g. a troublesome cough/ child/ problem.



classy /ˈklɑːsi/ of high quality; expensive and/ or fashionable. E.g. a classy player. A classy hotel/ restaurant.



anxious /ˈæŋkʃəs/  
1 feeling worried or nervous. E.g. He seemed anxious about the meeting. Parents are naturally anxious for their children.
2 wanting something very much. E.g. anxious to do something She was anxious to finish school and get a job. He was anxious not to be misunderstood. anxious for something There are plenty of graduates anxious for work.



heroic /həˈrəʊɪk/ E.g. a heroic figure. Rescuers made heroic efforts to save the crew.

Ex 1B 
KEY
1 sympathise /ˈsɪmpəθaɪz/ to feel sorry for somebody; to show that you understand and feel sorry about somebody's problems. E.g. I find it very hard to sympathize with him.



2 effective /ɪˈfektɪv/E.g. Long prison sentences can be a very effective deterrent for offenders.



3 imposition /ˌɪmpəˈzɪʃn/
1 [uncountable] the act of introducing something such as a new law or rule, or a new tax. E.g. The imposition of tax on domestic fuel.  
2 [countable] an unfair or unreasonable thing that somebody expects or asks you to do. E.g. I'd like to stay if it's not too much of an imposition.



4 frivolity /frɪˈvɒləti/ behaviour that is silly or amusing, especially when this is not suitable. E.g.
It was just a piece of harmless frivolity. A wave of frivolity has overtaken the election campaign. I can't waste time on such frivolities.


5 enviable /ˈenviəbl/ something that is enviable is the sort of thing that is good and that other people want to have too. E.g. He is in the enviable position of having two job offers to choose from.



6 hesitant /ˈhezɪtənt/ slow to speak or act because you feel uncertain, embarrassed or unwilling. E.g.
a hesitant smile. The baby's first few hesitant steps. Hesitant about something She's hesitant about signing the contract.


7 enthusiasm /ɪnˈθjuːziæzəm/ E.g. I can't say I share your enthusiasm for the idea.
dampen something to make something such as a feeling or a reaction less strong. E.g. None of the setbacks could dampen his enthusiasm for the project. She wasn't going to let anything dampen her spirits today.



8 chauvinistic  /ʃəʊvɪˈnɪstɪk/ someone who believes that their own country, race, sex, or group is better than any other. This word is used especially about men and their attitude towards women. E.g.
I had grown up in a very male chauvinistic environment in Taiwan.




 

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