explosion: /ɪkˈspləʊʒn/ a large, sudden or rapid increase in the amount or number of something. E.g. a population explosion. An explosion of interest in learning Japanese. An explosion in oil prices.
surrogate: /ˈsʌrəɡət/ used to describe a person or thing that takes the place of, or is used instead of, somebody/something else. E.g. She saw him as a sort of surrogate father.
surrogate mother: a woman who gives birth to a baby for another woman who is unable to have babies herself.
mammoth: /ˈmæməθ/ an animal like a large elephant covered with hair, that lived thousands of years ago and is now extinct.
gather something to increase in speed, force, etc. E.g. The truck gathered speed. During the 1980s the green movement gathered momentum. Thousands of these machines are gathering dust(= not being used) in stockrooms.
tissue: /ˈtɪʃuː/ /ˈtɪsjuː/ a collection of cells that form the different parts of humans, animals and plants. E.g. muscle/ brain/ nerve, etc. tissue.
1 dead language
2 lingua franca
3 global language
International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, Continental English, General English, Engas (English as associate language), or Globish. Sometimes, these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world.
4 mind their language
5 language barrier
Go to plan/ go according to plan
E.g. Let's hope everything will go according to plan.
fall through: to not be completed, or not happen. E.g. Our plans fell through because of lack of money.
due: arranged or expected. E.g. When's the baby due? The next train is due in five minutes. My essay's due next Friday (= it has to be given to the teacher by then). Due to do something Rose is due to start school in January. Due for something The band's first album is due for release later this month.
Be to + infinitive
You’re to get those reports written before Friday! (for obligations)
The factory is to open in July. (for formal announcements)
tempt somebody to do something: E.g. I was tempted to take the day off.
1 These can be traced back to the 1700s, ...
trace something (back) (to something) to find the origin or cause of something. E.g. She could trace her family tree back to the 16th century. The leak was eventually traced to a broken seal. The police traced the call (= used special electronic equipment to find out who made the telephone call) to her ex-husband's number.
strip: a long narrow piece of paper, metal, cloth, etc. E.g. a strip of material. Cut the meat into strips.
2 This fashion item is often attributed to British designer Mary Quant in the 1960s, . . .
garment: a piece of clothing. E.g. a strange shapeless garment that had once been a jacket. Woollen/ winter/ outer garments.
3 ... but it has its origins in the 'talking' style of West African musician-poets.
4 These have their roots in Ancient China, ....
root: the origin or basis of something. E.g. Flamenco has its roots in Arabic music.
5 ... it led to a new sport.lead to something to have something as a result. Result in. E.g. Eating too much sugar can lead to health problems. A reward was offered for information leading to an arrest.
6 ... This resulted in the brand name Gatorade.
result in something to make something happen. E.g. The cyclone has resulted in many thousands of deaths.
7 ... and gave rise to one of the most popular forms of electronic writing.
give rise to something: (formal) to cause something to happen or exist. E.g. The novel's success gave rise to a number of sequels.
1 roller skates
4 sun lasses
5 snowboarding: the sport of moving over snow on a snowboard. E.g. to go snowboarding. Snowboarding is now an Olympic sport.
6 energy drinksˈælɪɡeɪtə(r)/ similar to a crocodile