Monday, 9 December 2013

Speakout Advanced p 70. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 9

What inventions would you like to see in the future?

black box equipment that records what happens on a flight
switch: to change or make something change from one thing to another. E.g. switch (over) (from something) (to something) We're in the process of switching over to a new system of invoicing.

soothe somebody: /suːð/ to make somebody who is anxious, upset, etc. feel calmer. E.g.  The music soothed her for a while.

soothing: /suːðɪŋ/ having a gently calming effect. Calming. E.g. she put on some soothing music. A soothing voice/ lotion.
drift off (to sleep) to fall asleep. E.g. I didn't hear the storm. I must have drifted off by then.

contraption: /kənˈtræpʃn/ a machine or piece of equipment that looks strange. A machine or device that appears strange or unnecessarily complicated, and often badly made or unsafe. Sp. aparato, artilugio. E.g. She showed us a strange contraption that looked like a satellite dish. Repairing stereos and making contraptions out of spare electronic bits.

aerosol  /ˈeərəsɒl/ a metal container in which a liquid such as paint or hairspray is kept under pressure and released as a spray. E.g. ozone-friendly aerosols. An aerosol can/ spray

Ex 10A
Paragraph 1 
on track: doing or saying things that are likely to be successful or correct. E.g. We're right on track to create two million new jobs.

surpass (somebody/something/yourself): /səˈpɑːs/ to do or be better than somebody/ something. E.g. He hopes one day to surpass the world record. Its success has surpassed all expectations. Her cooking was always good, but this time she had surpassed herself (= done better than her own high standards). Scenery of surpassing beauty.

average: /ˈævərɪdʒ/ an amount, standard, level, or rate regarded as usual or ordinary. E.g. underground water reserves are below average. They take about thirty minutes on average

trial: the process of testing the ability, quality or performance of somebody/ something, especially before you make a final decision about them. E.g. We had the machine on trial for a week.

keep up (with somebody/ something) to move, make progress or increase at the same rate as somebody/ something. E.g. Slow down—I can't keep up! I can't keep up with all the changes. Wages are not keeping up with inflation.

Paragraph 2
at risk
at risk (from/of something) in danger of something unpleasant or harmful happening. E.g. As with all diseases, certain groups will be more at risk than others. If we go to war, innocent lives will be put at risk. 

contract something (formal or medical) to get an illness. E.g. to contract AIDS/ a virus/ a disease.

at present

at least

Paragraph 3
by far

by nature
nature the usual way that a person or an animal behaves that is part of their character. E.g. It's not in his nature to be unkind. She is very sensitive by nature. We appealed to his better nature (= his kindness).

prolific: /prəˈlɪfɪk/ producing many works, etc a prolific author. A prolific goalscorer.

by law.

Paragraph 4
in decline

in danger

in effect.
in effect used when you are stating what the facts of a situation are. Sp. a todos los efectos, prácticamente. E.g. In effect, the two systems are identical. His wife had, in effect, run the government for the past six months. By asking for these particular qualifications, you are, in effect, excluding most women from applying. 

Paragraph 5  
out of 
out of control 

 out of sight

out of necessity

Ex 11A

2 in decline 

3 out of control 

4 out of necessity

 5 by far 

6 at least 

7 by law 

8 in danger 

9 on average

10 At present 

Ex 11B
Sample answer
The world population will grow out of control 

There won't be enough water

What should be done: 
We should develop new ways of producing clean water 

p 153
Ex 1A
1 b) 
typhoon: /taɪˈfuːn/  a violent tropical storm with very strong winds
off course: not following the intended route. E.g. the car went careering off course
career to move forward very quickly, especially in an uncontrolled way.

2 a)
off the pace: behind the leader or leading group in a race or contest. E.g. Duncan was two seconds off the pace. (Figurative) he was well off the pace when it came to team politics.

3 c) 
off balance: not even, stable, or in correct proportions. E.g. I was thrown off balance by the sudden gust of wind.

4 b)
above/ beyond suspicion: too good, honest, etc. to have done something wrong, illegal or dishonest. E.g. Nobody who was near the scene of the crime is above suspicion.

5 c) 
above board: legal and honest; in a legal and honest way. E.g. Don't worry; the deal was completely above board. If you do everything above board, you will have to pay tax on your earnings. Note: If card players keep their hands above the table (the board), other players can see what they are doing.

6 a)
above all: most important of all; especially. E.g. Above all, keep in touch. 

7 b)
over the hill (informal) (of a person) old and therefore no longer useful or attractive. E.g. Youngsters seem to think you're over the hill at 40!

8 c)
over the moon (informal, especially British English) extremely happy and excited. E.g. They're over the moon about their trip to Japan. 

9 a)
over the top (abbr. OTT) (informal, especially British English) done to an exaggerated degree and with too much effort. E.g. His performance is completely over the top. An over-the-top reaction

10 c)
under the weather (informal) if you are or feel under the weather, you feel slightly ill/ sick and not as well as usual.

11 a)
(be) under the impression that… believing, usually wrongly, that something is true or is happening. E.g. I was under the impression that the work had already been completed. The soldiers scattered, under the impression that it was an enemy attack.

12 b)
on/under oath (law) having made a formal promise to tell the truth in court. E.g. Is she prepared to give evidence on oath? The judge reminded the witness that he was still under oath. You have sworn under oath that you never met this man.

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