Herder: a person whose job is to take care of a group of animals such as sheep and cows in the countryside. E.g. goat herder. Reindeer herder.
Trusty: that you have had a long time and have always been able to rely on. Reliable. E.g. a trusty friend. She spent years touring Europe with her trusty old camera.
Cramped: a cramped room, etc. does not have enough space for the people in it. E.g. working in cramped conditions.
Play up/ play somebody up: to cause somebody problems or pain. E.g. The kids have been playing up all day. My shoulder is playing me up today. The kids couldn't run around, they'd start playing up, tempers would overheat, and everyone fell out.
Temper: if somebody has a temper, they become angry very easily. E.g. a violent/short/quick, etc. temper. He must learn to control his temper. She broke the plates in a fit of temper. After an hour of waiting, tempers began to fray (= people began to get angry).
Fall out: to have an argument with somebody so that you are no longer friendly with them.
Go about: to start working on something. Tackle. Sp. Emprender: E.g. You're not going about the job in the right way. How should I go about finding a job?
Down to earth: sensible and practical, in a way that is helpful and friendly.
Account: a written or spoken description of something that has happened. E.g. She gave the police a full account of the incident. The diaries contained detailed accounts of the writer's experiences in China.
Reluctant: hesitating before doing something because you do not want to do it or because you are not sure that it is the right thing to do. Sp. Reacio. E.g. She was reluctant to admit she was wrong.
Open up (to somebody): (British English also open out (to somebody)) to talk about what you feel and think; to become less shy and more willing to communicate. Sp. Abrirse, sincerarse. E.g. It helps to discuss your problems but I find it hard to open up. He only opened up to her very slowly.
Country bumpkin: a person from the countryside who seems stupid. Sp. Paleto.
Despise: to dislike and have no respect for somebody/something. Sp. Despreciar. E.g. She despised gossip in any form. He despised himself for being so cowardly.
Defiant: /dɪˈfaɪənt/ openly refusing to obey somebody/something, sometimes in an aggressive way. Sp. Desobediente, desafiante. E.g. a defiant teenager. The terrorists sent a defiant message to the government.
Prune: to cut off some of the branches from a tree, bush, etc. so that it will grow better and stronger. Sp. Podar. E:g. When should you prune apple trees? He pruned the longer branches off the tree. Prune something back: e.g. The hedge (Sp. seto) needs pruning back.
Cut sth back: to make a bush, etc. smaller by cutting branches off. Prune. E.g. to cut back a rose bush.
Moan: /məʊn/ to complain about something. E.g. What are you moaning on about now? They're always moaning and groaning about how much they have to do. Bella moaned that her feet were cold.
Influx: the fact of a lot of people, money or things arriving somewhere. Sp. Afluencia. E.g. a massive/sudden influx of visitors. The influx of wealth into the region.
Buy something up: to buy all or as much as possible of something. E.g. Developers are buying up all the land on the island. They buy up land at giveaway prices.
Giveaway prices: low.
Sell sth up: to sell your home, possessions, business, etc, usually because you are leaving the country or retiring.
Species: (sg=pl) /ˈspiːʃiːz/ a group into which animals, plants, etc. that are able to breed with each other and produce healthy young are divided, smaller than a genus and identified by a Latin name. E.g. a rare species of beetle. There are many species of dog(s). A conservation area for endangered species.
Die out: to stop existing. E.g. This species has nearly died out because its habitat is being destroyed.
Be up to somebody: to be somebody's duty or responsibility; to be for somebody to decide. E.g. It's not up to you to tell me how to do my job. Shall we eat out or stay in? It's up to you.