Sunday, 8 December 2013

Speakout Advanced p 69. Future Forms. Extra Grammar



FUTURE TIME
Will
·         Predictions.
It looks as if Jake will lose his job.
·         Future facts.
The factory will open in July.
·         Decisions made at the moment of speaking.
I know! I’ll ask for a pay rise tomorrow.
·         Offers.
I’ll help you with the advertising campaign.
·         Promises.
I promise you you won’t lose your job.
·         Requests.
Will you give a presentation on the sales figures?
·         Refusals (won’t).
No, I won’t give a presentation on the sales figures.

Arrangements which have been made in some detail.
The tour will begin at 9.30 and all visitors to the site will need to wear good walking shoes.

For offers and suggestions in the question form, with I and we, we use shall not will.
Shall I help you with the advertising campaign? (offer)
Shall we discuss this in the morning? (suggestion).

For requests we can also use would, could or can. Would and could are more polite than will and can.
Would/Could/Can you give a presentation on the sales figures?

For refusals, we can also use couldn't or can't. Couldn't is more polite than won't and can't.
No, I couldn't/can't give a presentation on the sales figures.


Be going to
·         Predictions based on present evidence.
Look at that wall. It looks as if it’s going to fall down.
·         Intentions.
I’m going to get my degree, then get a well-paid job.


Present continuous
·         Fixed arrangements, especially social and travel arrangements.
I’m meeting Fiona on Friday to discuss.
·         Intentions.
I’m asking for a pay rise tomorrow.
WATCH OUT!
Both be going to and present continuous can be used for intentions. However, present continuous is not usually used for intentions in the distant future.
I’m going to work for a really successful company one day. 
(Not: I’m working for a huge multinational one day)


Present simple
·         Fixed future events (e.g. timetables and schedules)
The shop closes at 3 pm next Saturday.


Future perfect simple
·         Completed situations before a certain time.
It looks as if Jake will have lost his job by the end of the week.
·         Continuing situations up to a certain time.
This time next month, I’ll have worked at the company for exactly 25 years.


Future perfect continuous
·         Continuing situations up to a certain time (emphasises duration).
This time next month, I’ll have been working at the company for exactly 25 years.


Future continuous
·         Situations in progress at a certain time in the future.
This time next week, I’ll be travelling round Russia on business.
·         Situations which will happen in the future in the normal course of events.
The company Chairperson will be arriving on Thursday.
·         Habits or repeated actions at a point in the future
I think that, in the future, more and more people will be commuting to work by plane.
To appear very polite 
Will you be needing anything to drink, Sir?


Time clauses
After many time words and phrases, such as when, while, once, as soon as, etc., we do not use will or be going to. We use:
·         Present simple
I’ll give you a pay rise when you start working harder!
·         Present continuous
I’ll give you a pay rise once you’re bringing in three new customers a week.
·         Present perfect simple
I’ll give you a pay rise as soon as you’ve proved you’re a hard worker.
·         Present perfect continuous
I won’t give you a pay rise until you’ve been working here for three years.

Other ways to express the future
to be (just) about to (used for the (very) near future)
I'm just about to ask for my pay rise.
to be (just) on the point/verge of + gerund/noun (used for the (very) near future)
I'm just on the point/verge of asking for my pay rise.  
These measures brought the country to the verge of economic collapse.
to be bound/certain/likely/unlikely to (to express certainty/possibility)  
It's bound to be sunny again tomorrow.  
They are certain to agree.
to be on the brink of + gerund/noun. 
On the brink of collapse/war/death/disaster.  
Scientists are on the brink of making a major new discovery
·         Be to + infinitive
You’re to get those reports written before Friday! (for obligations)
The factory is to open in July. (for formal announcements)
·         Be due to + infinitive
I’m due to meet my boss at eleven o’clock (for formal arrangements)
Rose is due to start school in January (it is expected)
·        Modals to express certainty, possibility, etc.
I might ask for a pay rise tomorrow.

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