Sunday, 12 January 2014

Speakout Advanced p 104. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 1B

unconventional: /ˌʌnkənˈvenʃənl/ very different from the way people usually behave, think, dress. etc. E.g. unconventional views

thought-provoking: making people think seriously about a particular subject. E.g. a brilliant and thought-provoking play.

moving: making you feel strong emotions, especially sadness or sympathy. E.g. a deeply moving experience. A moving story/ speech.

bleak: without anything to make you feel happy or hopeful. E.g. a bleak outlook/ prospect. The future looks bleak for the fishing industry. The medical prognosis was bleak. They faced a financially bleak Christmas. A bleak landscape.

impressive: makes you admire it because it is very good, large, important, etc. E.g. an impressive building with a huge tower. An impressive performance. One of the most impressive novels of recent years. She was very impressive in the interview.

compelling: very interesting or exciting, so you have to pay attention. E.g. Her latest book makes compelling reading. A compelling story. A compelling film.

charming: very pleasing or attractive. E.g. The cottage is tiny, but it's charming. She's a charming person. A children's book with charming illustrations. There are lots of charming little restaurants along the river.

well-received: accepted with enthusiasm. e.g. by critics. E.g. a well-received book/ play

poignant: /pɔɪnjənt/ making you feel sad or full of pity. E.g. a poignant image/ moment/ memory, etc. A poignant film.

overrated: not as good or important as some people think or say. E.g. In my opinion, Hirst's work has been vastly overrated. A highly overrated film.

offbeat: unusual and not what people normally expect, especially in an interesting way. Unconventional. E.g. offbeat humour. An offbeat approach to interviewing. She’s a little offbeat but she’s a wonderful actress.

stylish: attractive in a fashionable way. Elegant and attractive. E.g. a stylish restaurant. It was a stylish performance by both artists.

amusing: funny and entertaining. E.g. an amusing story/ game/ incident. She writes very amusing letters. I didn't find the joke at all amusing. An amusing article/ comment. I don't find that type of humour very amusing at all.

striking: attractive in an unusual way that is easy to notice. E.g. striking good looks. She was undoubtedly a very striking young woman. She is naturally striking. A striking landscape.

dramatic: /drəˈmætɪk/ exciting or impressive, so that people notice. E.g. They watched dramatic pictures of the police raid on TV. Dramatic mountain peaks.

stunning: extremely attractive or beautiful. Impressive. E.g. You look absolutely stunning! A stunning view of the lake. His performance was simply stunning.

heart-breaking: making you feel extremely sad or disappointed. E.g. a heartbreaking story. They live in heartbreaking poverty. It's heartbreaking to lose a pet.

subtle: not easy to notice or understand unless you pay careful attention. E.g. subtle colours.
There are subtle differences between the two versions. His language expresses rich and subtle meanings.

2 Most of the words can describe most art forms, e.g. film, art, music.

3 Adjectives to describe people: unconventional, impressive, charming, offbeat, stylish, amusing. striking, stunning. We can use the other adjectives when we want to describe people's performances.

Ex 1D
poignant /ˈpɔɪnjənt/ (adj) (poignancy /ˈpɔɪnjənsi/ (N) E.g. Of particular poignancy was the photograph of their son with his sisters, taken the day before he died; poignantly /ˈpɔɪnjəntli/ (adv) E.g. Their experiences of war are poignantly described.)

subtle /ˈsʌtl/ (adj) (subtlety /ˈsʌtlti/ (N) E.g. It's a thrilling movie even though it lacks subtlety; subtly /ˈsʌtli/ E.g. Her version of events is subtly different from what actually happened.)

Speakout tip
whistling: /ˈwɪslɪŋ/

cupboard /ˈkʌbəd/

foreigner /ˈfɒrənə(r)/

mosquito /məˈskiːtəʊ/

Other words with silent letters:

gnarled /nɑːld/ (of trees) twisted and rough; covered with hard lumps. E.g. a gnarled oak/branch/trunk
(of a person or part of the body) bent and twisted because of age or illness. E.g. gnarled hands. His hands were gnarled with age and arthritis.

gnash: /næʃ/
gnash your teeth to feel very angry and upset about something, especially because you cannot get what you want. Sp. rechinar los dientes. E.g. He'll be gnashing his teeth when he hears that we lost the contract. The news caused great wailing (cries and complaints) and gnashing of teeth.

gnaw: /nɔː/ to keep biting something or chewing it hard, so that it gradually disappears. Sp. roer. E.g. gnaw something The dog was gnawing a bone. Gnaw through something Rats had gnawed through the cable. Gnaw at/on something She gnawed at her fingernails. Gnaw away at/on something (figurative) Self-doubt began to gnaw away at her confidence.

gnaw at somebody: to make somebody feel anxious, frightened or uncomfortable over a long period of time. E.g. The problem had been gnawing at him for months. Fear gnawed at her soul.

gnome: /nəʊm/ (in stories) a creature like a small man with a pointed hat, who lives under the ground and guards gold and treasure.

haute cuisine /ˌəʊt kwɪˈziːn/ cooking of a very high standard.

heir: /eə(r)/ 
heir (to something)/ heir (of somebody). E.g. to be heir to a large fortune. The son and heir of the Earl (Sp. conde) of Lancaster.

honour: /ˈɒnə(r)/

hors d’oeuvre /ˌɔː ˈdɜːv/ a small amount of food, usually cold, served before the main part of a meal.

hour /ˈaʊə(r)/

knack /næk/
  1. a special skill or ability that you have naturally or can learn. E.g. It's easy, once you've got the knack. knack of/for (doing) something He's got a real knack for making money.
  2. knack of doing something a habit of doing something. E.g. She has the unfortunate knack of always saying the wrong thing
knee  /niː/

kneel  /niːl/ E.g. People sometimes kneel to pray.

(death) knell: /nel/ an event that means that the end or destruction of something will come soon. E.g. If he loses this referendum, it will sound the death knell for his leadership. The ​opening of the ​superstore will ​sound/​toll the ​death ​knell for (= ​cause the ​failure of) hundreds of ​small ​independent ​shops. Due to privatisation the death knell rings for the NHS.

knick-knack: /ˈnɪk næk/ [usually plural] a small decorative /ˈdekərətɪv/ object in a house. E.g. There were no photographs, no knick-knacks: just a simple table and chairs.

knife /naɪf/ 

knight /naɪt/ (fem . Dame)

knit /nɪt/ to make clothes, etc. from wool or cotton thread using two long thin knitting needles or a machine. E.g. I knitted this cardigan myself.
knob /nɒb/ 1. a round switch on a machine such as a television that you use to turn it on and off, etc. E.g.the volume control knob. 2. a round handle on a door or a drawer.

knock /nɒk/ E.g. Somebody was knocking at/on the door. 

knot /nɒt/ Sailors had to know lots of different knots. (Idm) tie the knot (to get married)

know /nəʊ/  

knuckle /ˈnʌkl/ any of the joints in the fingers, especially those connecting the fingers to the rest of the hand.

psychology /saɪˈkɒlədʒi/

psychic /ˈsaɪkɪk/ 

psalm /sɑːm/ a song, poem or prayer that praises God, especially one in the Bible. E.g. the Book of Psalms.

wrangle /ˈræŋɡl/
wrangle (with somebody)(over something) | wrangle (between A and B) an argument that is complicated and continues over a long period of time. E.g. a legal wrangle between the company and their suppliers. He is currently locked in a bitter wrangle with his wife over custody of the children.

wrap /ræp/ E.g. He spent the evening wrapping up the Christmas presents. 

wreath /riːθE.g. The Queen laid a wreath at the war memorial. Sp. corona

wreck /rek/ 1. a ship that has sunk or that has been very badly damaged. 2. a car, plane, etc. that has been very badly damaged in an accident. E.g. Two passengers are still trapped in the wreck. She was pulled from the burning wreck by firefighters.

shipwreck: /ˈʃɪprek/ 1. the loss or destruction of a ship at sea because of a storm or because it hits rocks, etc. E.g. They narrowly escaped shipwreck in a storm in the North Sea. The shipwreck of the tanker has caused one of the worst oil spills in recent years. 2. a ship that has been lost or destroyed at sea. E.g. The contents of shipwrecks belong to the state.

wreckage: /ˈrekɪdʒ/ the parts of a vehicle, building, etc. that remain after it has been badly damaged or destroyed. E.g. A few survivors were pulled from the wreckage. Pieces of wreckage were found ten miles away from the scene of the explosion.

wrench: /rentʃ/ (V) 1. to pull with a violent movement. Sp. arrancar. E.g. He wrenched the gun out of her hand. 2. to sprain. Sp. torcer. E.g. I wrenched my shoulder moving furniture about. (N) 1. a type of strong tool for turning nuts, bolts etc. Sp. llave inglesa. 2. pain or unhappiness that you feel when you have to leave a person or place that you love. E.g. Leaving home was a terrible wrench for me. 3. a sudden and violent twist or pull. E.g. She stumbled and gave her ankle a painful wrench.

wrestle:  /ˈresl/ to fight somebody by holding them and trying to throw or force them to the ground, sometimes as a sport. E.g. As a boy he had boxed and wrestled. 2. to struggle to deal with something that is difficult. E.g. She had spent the whole weekend wrestling with the problem.
wriggle: (V) to twist and turn your body or part of it with quick short movements. Sp. retorcerse. E.g.
The baby was wriggling around on my lap.

wring, wrung, wrung: to twist and squeeze clothes, etc. in order to get the water out of them. E.g.
He wrung the water from his soaking-wet shirt.



doubt /daʊt/

dumb /dʌm/ 1. (old-fashioned, sometimes offensive. It's better to say speech-impaired) unable to speak. E.g. She was born deaf and dumb. 2. stupid. E.g. That was a pretty dumb thing to do.

dumbfounded/dʌmˈfaʊndɪd/ unable to speak because of surprise. E.g. The news left her dumbfounded.
debt /det/

comb /kəʊmcombing /ˈkəʊmɪŋ/ combed /kəʊmd/

bomb /bɒm/ bombing /ˈbɒmɪŋ/ bombed /bɒmd/

climb /klaɪm/ climbing /ˈklaɪmɪŋ/ climbed /klaɪmd/

crumb /krʌm/ a very small piece of food, especially of bread or cake, that has fallen off a larger piece. E.g. She stood up and brushed the crumbs from her sweater. Breadcrumbs /ˈbredkrʌmz/

lamb /læm/ 

limb  /lɪm/ an arm or a leg

ascent  /əˈsent/ the act of climbing or moving up; an upward journey. E.g. the first ascent of Mount Everest.

descent /dɪˈsent/ an action of coming or going down. E.g. The plane began its descent to Heathrow.

fascinate /ˈfæsɪneɪt/ to attract or interest somebody very much. E.g. China has always fascinated me.

muscle /ˈmʌsl/ 

scene /siːn/  

scissors /ˈsɪzəz/

align /əˈlaɪn/  to organize things so that they form a straight line or are in the correct position in relation to other things. E.g. The graves were all perfectly aligned.

campaign /kæmˈpeɪn/ E.g. an anti-smoking campaign

design /dɪˈzaɪn/

foreign /ˈfɒrən/ E.g. a foreign accent/language/student

malign /məˈlaɪn/
malign somebody/something (formal) to say bad things about somebody/something publicly. E.g. She feels she has been much maligned by the press.

reign /reɪn/

unfeigned  /ʌnˈfeɪnd/ real and sincere. E.g. unfeigned admiration

balmy /ˈbɑːmi/ (approving) (of the air, weather, etc.) warm and pleasant. E.g. a balmy summer evening. A balmy night. Balmy weather.

calm /kɑːm/ 

calf /kɑːf/ 1.  the back part of the leg between the ankle and the knee. E.g. I've torn a calf muscle. 2. a young cow.

half /hɑːf/   halves /hɑːvz/

yolk: /jəʊk/ the round yellow part in the middle of an egg. E.g. Separate the whites from the yolks. 

autumn /ˈɔːtəm/

column /ˈkɒləm/

condemn /kənˈdem/ 

damning /ˈdæmɪŋ/ critical of somebody/something; suggesting that somebody is guilty. E.g. damning criticism/evidence. A damning conclusion/report.

hymn:  /hɪm/

bristle /ˈbrɪsl/ one of the short stiff hairs or wires in a brush.

fasten  /ˈfɑːsn/

listen /ˈlɪsn/

apostle /əˈpɒsl/

Epistle /ɪˈpɪsl/
Epistle: any of the letters in the New Testament of the Bible, written by the first people who followed Christ. E.g. the Epistles of St Paul.

mortgage /ˈmɔːɡɪdʒ/

rustle:  (N) /ˈrʌsl/ a light dry sound like leaves or pieces of paper moving or rubbing against each other. E.g. There was a rustle of paper as people turned the pages. I heard a faint rustle in the bushes. With a rustle of wings the bird landed on the window ledge.

rustle (something) /ˈrʌsl/ (V) if something dry and light rustles or you rustle it, it makes a sound like paper, leaves, etc. moving or rubbing together the sound of the trees rustling in the breeze Her silk dress rustled as she moved.

soften /ˈsɒfn/ 

biscuit /ˈbɪskɪt/

build /bɪld/

circuit /ˈsɜːkɪt/

disguise /dɪsˈɡaɪz/ (V) to change your appearance so that people cannot recognize you. E.g.
The hijackers were heavily disguised. (N) a thing that you wear or use to change your appearance so that people do not recognize you. E.g. She wore glasses and a wig as a disguise.

guilty /ˈɡɪlti/

league /liːɡ/ 

rogue (N) /rəʊɡ/ a person who behaves badly, but in a harmless way. E.g. He's a bit of a rogue, but very charming.
rogue (adj) behaving in a different way from other similar people or things, often causing damage. E.g. a rogue police officer

vague  /veɪɡ/ E.g. They had only a vague idea where the place was.
answer  /ˈɑːnsə(r)/

sword /sɔːd/

two /tuː/

drawer /drɔː(r)/

ballet /ˈbæleɪ/

buffet /ˈbʊfeɪ/

chalet /ˈʃæleɪ/

valet  /ˈvæleɪ/ 1. a man’s personal servant who takes care of his clothes, serves his meals, etc. E.g. His valet brought him his letters. 2. a person who parks your car for you at a hotel or restaurant. E.g. Do they have valet parking?

yacht /jɒt/ E.g. a luxury /ˈlʌkʃəri/ yacht

Ex 2B
The text is about an art project that took place on the fourth plinth in Trafalgar Square: members of the public were invited to perform on the plinth. 

plinth: /plɪnθ/ a block of stone on which a column or statue stands. Sp. pedestal.

Ex 3
a) 4

b) 5

c) 6

d) 2

e) 1

f) 3

Ex 4 
1 depict: /dɪˈpɪkt/ show

2 engendering /ɪnˈdʒendərɪŋ/
engender something: /ɪnˈdʒendə(r)/ (formal) to make a feeling or situation exist. To make people have a particular feeling or make a situation start to exist.  Generate. Lead to. Sp. engendrar, generar, ocasionar. E.g. Her latest book has engendered a lot of controversy. The vice-president's speech did not engender confidence in his judgement. The issue engendered controversy. Problems engendered by the restructuring of the company. The place engendered immediate feelings of friendship and belonging.

3 orchestrate something: /ˈɔːkɪstreɪt/ to organize a complicated plan or event very carefully or secretly. E.g. a carefully orchestrated publicity campaign. The group is accused of orchestrating violence at demonstrations. Their victory was largely a result of their brilliantly orchestrated election campaign.

4 preoccupations 
preoccupation /priˌɒkjuˈpeɪʃn/ 1. a state of thinking about something continuously; something that you think about frequently or for a long time. Obsession. E.g.  She found his preoccupation with money irritating. His current preoccupation is the appointment of the new manager. My main preoccupation now is trying to keep life normal for the sake of my two boys. 2. the state of being worried about or thinking about something most of the time. Lately, his preoccupation with football had caused his marks at school to slip.

5 onlookers 
onlooker /ˈɒnlʊkə(r)/ a person who watches something that is happening but is not involved in it. Bystander. E.g. A crowd of onlookers gathered at the scene of the crash.

6 at random
at random: without deciding in advance what is going to happen, or without any regular pattern. Unsystematically. E.g. She opened the book at random (= not at any particular page) and started reading. The terrorists fired into the crowd at random. Names were chosen at random from a list. Winners will be chosen at random.

7 spectrum: a complete or wide range of related qualities, ideas, etc. E.g. a broad spectrum of interests. We shall hear views from across the political spectrum.

8 overran 
overrun:  to take more time or money than was intended. E.g. Her lectures never overrun. Overrun something You've overrun your time by 10 minutes.

9 serene /səˈriːn/ (also peaceful) calm and peaceful. E.g. a lake, still and serene in the sunlight. A calm and serene person.

10 voyeuristic /ˌvwaɪəˈrɪstɪk/
  1. getting pleasure by secretly watching people who are naked or having sex
  2. gaining enjoyment from watching the problems and private lives of others. E.g. a voyeuristic interest in other people’s lives

Other words from the text
striking: interesting and unusual enough to attract attention. E.g. That hat looks very striking. A striking piece of modern art.

enactenact something (formal) to perform a play or act a part in a play. E.g. scenes from history enacted by local residents. The stories are enacted using music, dance and mime.

unconventional /ˌʌnkənˈvenʃənl/ not following what is done or considered normal or acceptable by most people; different and interesting. E.g. an unconventional approach to the problem. Unconventional views. The magazine describes him as having unconventional good looks.

compelling: very interesting or exciting, so you have to pay attention. E.g. Her latest book makes compelling reading. A compelling story. A compelling film.

submit: /səbˈmɪt/ submit something (to somebody/something) to give a document, proposal, etc. to somebody in authority so that they can study or consider it. E.g. to submit an application/a claim/a complaint. Completed projects must be submitted by 10 March.

spot: a part of a television, radio, club or theatre show that is given to a particular entertainer or type of entertainment. E.g. a guest/solo spot.

range: vary. E.g. Accommodation ranges from tourist class to luxury hotels. She has had a number of different jobs, ranging from chef to swimming instructor. They ranged in age from sixteen to eighty-three.

come up withto find or produce an answer, a sum of money, etc.  E.g. She came up with a new idea for increasing sales. How soon can you come up with the money?

wildly: extremely; very. E.g. The story had been wildly exaggerated. It is not a wildly funny play.

thought-provoking: making people think seriously about a particular subject. E.g. a brilliant and thought-provoking play.

poignant: /pɔɪnjənt/ making you feel sad or full of pity. E.g. a poignant image/ moment/ memory, etc. A poignant film.

amusing: funny and entertaining. E.g. an amusing story/ game/ incident. She writes very amusing letters. I didn't find the joke at all amusing. An amusing article/ comment. I don't find that type of humour very amusing at all.
go about something: to continue to do something; to keep busy with something. E.g. Despite the threat of war, people went about their business as usual. They went about their daily lives.


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