Sunday, 26 January 2014

Speakout Advanced p 118. INVERSION - EXPLANATION

We invert the subject and auxiliary verb in the sentence to give emphasis. This happens:
  • After certain expressions when they are at the beginning of a sentence.
In / Under no circumstances
Scarcely (ever)… when
Hardly (ever)… when
Never before
No sooner… than
Not only… but also
On no occasion
In no way
Nor / Neither
Not even once
On no account
Only in this way
Rarely do we see him these days.
No sooner had we got into the house than he phoned us.
  • When the following expressions begin a sentence, we use inversion in the main clause.
Only after, only by, only if, only when, not till / until, not since.
Only after he had graduated, did he start looking for a job.
Only if you invite her, will she come to your party.
Not until all tests had been completed, were we told the results.
  • After so, such, to such a degree (in result clauses) when they are at the beginning of a sentence.
So careful is he that he never makes any mistakes.
Such a brilliant student was he that he was offered a scholarship.
  • With should, were, had in conditionals at the beginning of the sentence when “if” is omitted.
Type 1: Should you see him, tell him to call me. (= If you should see him…)
Type 2: Were I you, I would cancel my trip. (= If I were you…)
Type 3: Had he known, he would have made arrangements. (= If he had known…)
  • After so, neither / nor, as when expressing agreement.
“I hate horror films.” “So do I.” (“So” is used to agree with an affirmative statement.)
“Jane hasn’t returned our calls.” “Neither / Nor has her husband.” (“Neither / Nor” are used to agree with a negative statement).
His colleagues respected him as did his boss.
The subject and the main verb are also usually inverted in the following structures:
  • After adverbs of place or time
Here comes the bride!
Away ran the thief!
  • In Direct speech when the reporting verb comes after the quote and the subject is a noun.
“I’ve never seen him,” said Helen

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