Sunday, 1 November 2009

Ready for CAE p 24. Reading. Vocabulary


Resilient: (of a substance) returning to its original shape after being bent, stretched, or pressed. Elástico.

Threat: the possibility of trouble, danger or disaster.

To fall into disrepair: a building, road, etc. that is in a state of disrepair has not been taken care of and is broken or in bad condition. Deteriorarse.

Site: a place where a building, town, etc. was, is or will be located.

Barbed wire: strong wire with short sharp points on it, used especially for fences. Alambre de espino.

Within: before a particular period of time has passed; during a particular period of time.

Concrete: building material that is made by mixing together cement, sand, small stones and water.

Breakthrough: a way through sthg using force.

Tank traps are fortifications which are designed to keep tanks and other armored vehicles from passing through certain strategic areas. Tank traps are also used to control motor vehicle access to vulnerable areas like protected parks, beaches, and forests. Some historic examples of tank traps can be seen in some parts of Europe, left over from the Second World War, and modern tank traps can sometimes be seen near parks and reserves. Unfortunately for soldiers, tank traps are not terribly effective against tanks, although they are certainly useful for preventing access by average vehicles in a non-military situation.

Ditch: a long channel dug at the side of a field or road, to hold or take away water.

Deterrent: a thing that makes sby less likely to do sthg (= that deters them). Elemento disuasorio.

Would-be: [only before noun] used to describe sby who is hoping to become the type of person mentioned.

To flee-fled-fled: to run away, to escape.

To prevail: to exist or be very common at a particular time or in a particular place.

Via: by means of a particular person, system, etc.

To lift (a restriction): to remove or end restrictions.

Stretch: an area of land or water, especially a long one.

To take down: to remove a structure, especially by separating it into pieces.

Housing: houses, flats / apartments, etc. that people live in, especially when referring to their type, price or condition.

Man-made: made by people; not natural; artificial.

Outer space: the area outside the earth’s atmosphere where all the other planets and stars are.

BC: Before Christ.

Forced labour: hard physical work that sby, often a prisoner or slave, is forced to do.

Layer: a quantity or thickness of sthg that lies over a surface or between surfaces.

To crumble: if a building or piece of land is crumbling, parts of it are breaking off.

To evolve: to develop gradually, especially from a simple to a more complicated form; to develop sthg in this way.

Marauding: [only before noun] (of people or animals) going around a place in search of things to steal or people to attack. To maraud: saquear, merodear.

Haven: a place that is safe and peaceful where people or animals are protected. Refugio, puerto, remanso.

Bustling: (with sthg) full of people moving about in a busy way.

To spring up: to appear or develop quickly and/or suddenly.

Ornate: covered with a lot of decoration, especially when this involves very small or complicated designs.

Feat: an action or a piece of work that needs skill, strength or courage.

Arguably: used, often before a comparative or superlative adjective, when you are stating an opinion which you believe you could give reasons to support. Posiblemente, podría decirse.

AD: Anno Domini. Después de Cristo.

ON the orders of

Northernmost: furthest north.

Boundary: a real or imagined line that marks the limits or edges of sthg and separates it from other things or places; a dividing line.

Man (v): to provide a place, machine, or system with the people needed to operate it. Dotar de personal

Fort: a building or buildings built in order to defend an area against attack.

Turret: a small tower on top of a wall or building, especially a castle.

Milecastle: a small fort (fortlet), a rectangular fortification built during the period of the Romans. They were placed at intervals of approximately one Roman mile along several major frontiers.

Glimpse: when you see something or someone for a very short time.

Alongside: next to or at the side of sthg.

Throughout: during the whole period of time of sthg.

Gateway: an opening in a wall or fence that can be closed by a gate.

Guild: an association of skilled workers in the Middle Ages.

Toll: money that you pay to use a particular road or bridge.

To dwindle: to become gradually less or smaller.

To dismantle: to take apart a machine or structure so that it is in separate pieces

Vehement /ˈviːəmənt/: involving extremely strong feelings or beliefs. Apasionado

set about something: to begin doing something, especially in a determined or enthusiastic way.
eg She set about the problem with her usual energy.

set about doing something: The Prime Minister set about resolving the problem of rehousing the victims.
Ponerse a

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