Thursday, 1 April 2010

Ready for CAE p 172. Reading: Vocabulary

Yoghurts recalled after mould found

Recall something: to ask for something to be returned, often because there is something wrong with it. Retirar del mercado. E.g. the company has recalled all the faulty hairdryers.

Mould: /məʊld/ a fine soft green, grey or black substance like fur (hair that grows on the body of some animals) that grows on old food or on objects that are left in warm wet air. Moho. E.g. there's mould on the cheese. Moulds and fungi (/ˈfʌŋɡiː/pl of fungus: hongo). The room smelled damp and there was mould on one wall.

Batch: an amount of food, medicine, etc. produced at one time. Hornada, tanda, lote. E.g. a batch of cookies. Loaves of bread baked in batches of 20. It is necessary to make new batches of flu vaccine whenever a different, virulent (/ˈvɪrʊlənt/ extremely dangerous or harmful and quick to have an effect. Virulento) strain ( type of plant or animal, or of a disease) of flu makes an appearance.

Range: a set of products of a particular type. Línea, gama. E.g. our new range of hair products.

Liken something/somebody to something/somebody(formal): /ˈlaɪkən/ to compare one thing or person to another and say they are similar. Comparar. E.g. Life is often likened to a journey.

Pungent: /ˈpʌndʒənt/ having a strong taste or smell. Acre, penetrante. E.g. the pungent smell of burning rubber. The air was pungent with the smell of spices.

Odour: /ˈəʊdə/ a smell, especially one that is unpleasant. Olor. E.g. A pungent odour. A musty odour (smelling damp and unpleasant because of a lack of fresh air. Que huele a humedad). A foul odour (/faʊl/ dirty and smelling bad. Fétido, nauseabundo). The stale (no longer fresh; smelling unpleasant. No fresco) odour of cigarette smoke.

Go off: if food or drink goes off, it becomes bad and not fit to eat or drink. Estropearse, pasarse.

Withdraw: move away from a place. Pull out. Retirar. Government troops were forced to withdraw.

Precautionary: /priˈkɔːʃənər‿i / done in advance in order to prevent problems or to avoid danger. Preventivo. E.g. He was kept in the hospital overnight as a precautionary measure.

Claim to ask for money because you have a right to it. Solicitar cobrar. E.g. he's going to claim compensation: va a reclamar una indemnización.

Dispose of somebody/something: to get rid of somebody/something that you do not want or cannot keep. Deshacerse de. E.g. the difficulties of disposing of nuclear waste. To dispose of stolen property.

Forward: Send

 Lid: a cover over a container that can be removed or opened by turning it or lifting it. Tapa. E.g. a dustbin lid. I can't get the lid off this jar.

Sell-by date: the date printed on food packages, etc. after which the food must not be sold. E.g. this milk is past its sell-by date. Fecha límite de venta.

Voucher: /ˈvaʊtʃə/ a printed piece of paper that can be used instead of money to pay for something, or that allows you to pay less than the usual price of something. Vale, cupón. E.g. a voucher for a free meal. A travel voucher. This discount voucher entitles you to 10% off your next purchase.


Extract from a novel

Get on: (also get along) used to talk or ask about how well somebody is doing in a particular situation. E.g. he's getting on very well at school. How did you get on at the interview?Boldly: bravely and confidently. Con audacia, atrevimiento. E.g. he stepped boldly forward to speak.
 
Septic: infected with harmful bacteria. Séptico, infectado. E.g. a septic finger. A dirty cut may go septic.
 
Outbreak: the sudden start of something unpleasant, especially violence or a disease. Comienzo, estallido, brote. E.g. the outbreak of war. An outbreak of typhoid (/ˈtaɪfɔɪd/fiebre tifoidea).
 
Food-poisoning: an illness of the stomach caused by eating food that contains harmful bacteria. Intoxicación alimentaria.
 
Trace sth back to sth: to find the origin or cause of something. Seguirle la pista/el rastro. She could trace her family tree back to the 16th century. The leak was eventually traced to a broken seal (a substance, strip of material, etc. used to fill a crack so that air, liquid, etc. cannot get in or out. Precinto, cierre. E.g. only drink bottled water and check the seal isn't broken.)
The police traced the call (= used special electronic equipment to find out who made the telephone call) to her ex-husband's number.

Note: an official document with a particular purpose. E.g. a sick note from your doctor. A doctor's note (baja médica)

Lay sb off: to stop employing somebody because there is not enough work for them to do. Make somebody redundant. Despedir. E.g. 200 workers at the factory have been laid off.

Scare: a situation in which a lot of people are anxious or frightened about something. Pánico. E.g. a bomb/health scare. Recent scares about pesticides in food.

Scapegoat: a person who is blamed for something bad that somebody else has done or for some failure. Synonym: fall guy. Chivo expiatorio. Cabeza de turco. E.g. She felt she had been made a scapegoat for her boss's incompetence.


Appearances can be deceptive

Under cover: pretending to be somebody else in order to do something secretly. E.g. a police officer working under cover.

Trawl: /trɔːl/ to search through a large amount of information or a large number of people, places, etc. looking for a particular thing or person. E.g. she trawled the shops for bargains.

Retailer: /ˈriːteɪələ/ a person or business that sells goods to the public. Minorista. E.g. one of the country's largest food retailers.

Track sth/sb downto find somebody/something after searching in several different places. Synonym: trace. Localizar. E.g. the police have so far failed to track down the attacker.I finally tracked the reference down in a book of quotations.

Enticing: /ɪnˈtaɪsɪŋ/ something that is enticing is so attractive and interesting that you want to have it or know more about it. Tetador, apetecible, atractivo. E.g. the offer was too enticing to refuse.An enticing smell came from the kitchen.The idea of two weeks in the sun sounds very enticing.

Mislead: misled, misled. To give somebody the wrong idea or impression and make them believe something that is not true. Engañar. E.g. he deliberately misled us about the nature of their relationship.

Culprit: /ˈkʌlprɪt/ a person who has done something wrong or against the law. Culpable. E.g. the police quickly identified the real culprits.

Maple syrup: a sweet sticky sauce made with liquid obtained from some types of maple tree, often eaten with pancakes. Jarabe de arce. 

Reliant on: needing somebody/something in order to survive, be successful, etc. Dependent. E.g. Businesses have become increasingly reliant on complicated computing systems.

Distort: to twist or change facts, ideas, etc. so that they are no longer correct or true. Deformar, distorsionar, tergiversar. E.g. newspapers are often guilty of distorting the truth. The article gave a distorted picture of his childhood.
  
Claim: a statement that something is true although it has not been proved and other people may not agree with or believe it Afirmación, alegación. E.g. the singer has denied the magazine's claim that she is leaving the band. A report examining claims of corrupt links between politicians.

Acknowledge: /əkˈnɒlɪdʒ/ to accept that something is true. Admitir, reconocer. E.g. acknowledge something. She refuses to acknowledge the need for reform. Are you prepared to acknowledge your responsibility?

Ammunition: /ˌæmjuˈnɪʃən/ information that can be used against another person in an argument. Munición, argumentos. E.g. the letter gave her all the ammunition she needed. 

Home in on sth:  
1 to aim at something and move straight towards it. Dirigirse a. E.g. the missile homed in on the target. A shark homing in on its victim.
2 to direct your thoughts or attention towards something. I began to feel I was really homing in on the answer. The investigation homed in on the town of Carlton.

Boostto make something increase, or become better or more successful. Aumentar, incrementar. E.g. to boost exports/profits. The movie helped boost her screen career. To boost somebody's confidence/morale.

Flout: /flaʊt/ to show that you have no respect for a law, etc. by openly not obeying it. Defy. Desobedecer. Saltarse algo a la torera. E.g. motorists regularly flout the law.

Make your blood boil: make you very angry. 



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